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  • ISSN: 2379-089X
    Volume 4, Issue 2
    Short Communication
    Adilson Kleber Ferreira*, Barbara Kawamura, Salomao Doria Jorge, Ricardo Alexandre de Azevedo, Marcio Henrique Zaim, and Kerly Fernanda Mesquita Pasqualoto
    New small drug like compounds are developed based on the selection of more specific targets considering the interrelationship of three knowledge fields: rational drug design/computer-aided drug design (CADD), chemical synthesis and biological evaluation. It is well-known that the use of CADD strategies in the early stage of drug development can avoid the synthesis of thousands of compounds, driving the efforts to more promising compounds (having suitable pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetic features as well as low toxicity), reducing the number of biological assays to be performed and, consequently, decreasing the use of animal experimentation. Also, the time and costs involved in the entire radical innovation process can also be reduced, and the chances of success may significantly increase to reach the final product. Herein, we have pointed out some aspects related to the early development phase of anticancer drug candidates concerning the integration of those three main knowledge fields.
    Hadwiger LA*
    Chitosan has been utilized effectively in many plant-related applications since becoming a commercial product. The multiple forms of chitosan represent many physical and biological properties. Based on the current paucity of reports on chitosan oligomers in animal systems, the utility of these properties are likely new to many researchers. The objective of this report is to assemble some basics of size, cationic and solubility properties of chitosan relative to function and encourage further research on the chitosan heptamer as a gene activating signal in animal tissue. Also to compliment other work reported in the special report on chitosan.
    Mini Review
    Signe Ladegaard Harder and Jorn Herrstedt*
    Chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) are two of the most feared adverse events experienced by cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Metoclopramide was derived from procainamide in the 1950s and one of the first drugs investigated in the prophylaxis of nausea and vomiting induced by chemotherapy. The breakthrough came in 1981 with the recognition that high-dose metoclopramide was effective and tolerable in the prevention of cisplatin-induced nausea and vomiting. A combination of high- dose metoclopramide and a corticosteroid was the standard antiemetic recommendation until the serotonin (5-HT)3-receptor antagonists, ondansetron, granisetron, tropisetron and dolasetron became available in the beginning of the 1990s.
    The development of these highly selective (5-HT)3-receptor antagonists with a superior effect and a preferable tolerability profile has limited the use of metoclopramide to be prescribed as a rescue antiemetic, when guideline recommended antiemetic therapy fails.
    Review Article
    Venugopalreddy Bovilla, Prashanthkumar MV, Suma M. Natraj, Asha Srinivasan, and Subba Rao V. Madhunapantula*
    Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf-2) is a stress activated transcription factor, which regulates the expression of genes involved in the (a) degradation of reactive oxygen species (ROS); (b) drug metabolism and export; (c) formation of new blood vessels (angiogenesis); and (d) cell proliferation and apoptosis. Kelch-like erythroid cell-derived protein 1 (Keap-1) is the major regulator of Nrf2 activity in cells. In normal cells Keap1 binds to Nrf2 thereby prevents its translocation to nucleus. However, in cancer cells Keap-1, due to mutations or unusually high oxidative stress, has lost its ability to effectively bind and prevent Nrf2 translocation to nucleus. Therefore, deregulated expression and activity of Nrf2 is widely reported in cancers. But, it is not clear whether targeted inhibition or pharmacological activation of Nrf2 is required for effective inhibition of tumor cells growth, as many studies have reported a dual role for Nrf2. While many studies have reported targeted inhibition of Nrf2 inhibits tumor growth, few recent studies have demonstrated that pharmacological activation of Nrf2 helps to prevent the transformation of normal cells in to cancer cells. Moreover, it is not known whether Nrf2 is a good therapeutic target to treat carcinomas of breast. Hence, in this article we address these key questions by reviewing recent developments highlighting the functional role of Nrf2 and its target genes in the development of cancers with primary emphasis on breast cancer, followed by evaluating the potential of pharmacological agents that inhibit tumor growth by modulating Nrf2 activity. Finally, current status of Nrf2 modulators in the clinical development for treating carcinomas of breast and other organs is also addressed.
    Mini Review
    Dario Rafael Olicón-Hernández, Luis Fernando Zepeda Giraud, and Guadalupe Guerra-Sánchez*
    This review is focused on the chemical characteristics of chitosan and chito-oligosacharides as well as in their potential applications in different fields. We analyzed the origin and structure properties of these molecules and mentioned physicochemical parameters. The review deals mainly with the field of antifungal activity, therapy and nanotechnology in pharmaceutical; likewise, some factor that could explain the mode of action of these molecules used in these applications was proposed.
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