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  • ISSN: 2379-089X
    Volume 4, Issue 3
    Review Article
    Mahmoudreza Moradi*, Haress Rezaee, and Kaveh Kaseb
    Introduction: MMC is an antibiotic which through complex mechanisms prevent DNA synthesis and results in cell death subsequently. The first approved urological application of MMC was to treat bladder carcinoma in 1974. Since that time many studies have offered different utilization of MMC in urology. The efficacy, safety and long-term results of MMC has been shown in urological conditions however the majority of studies have concentrated on bladder cancer.
    Methods: We searched the PubMed and Cochrane data bases by using the " Mitomycin C" and "urological applications" as search keys, limiting search to systematic reviews from 2010 till 2016 in English language.
    Results: Overall 20 articles were according to our inclusion criteria thus we reviewed them and represented all their relevant results.
    Conclusion: The application of MMC in urology is more commonly in bladder cancer while for ureteropelvicial carcinoma and uretheral stricture is used too.
    Yukiko Uekaji*, Naoko Ikuta, Gerald Rimbach, Seiichi Matsugo, and Keiji Terao
    Natural lipophilic bioactives that possess human health benefits, such as coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) and R-α-lipoic acid (RALA), often have undesirable characteristics that limit their use as nutraceuticals and cosmeceuticals. These bioactives are usually unstable against oxygen, ultraviolet light, low pH and heat. Furthermore, their water-solubility is low because of their hydrophobic nature or instability and this leads to low bioavailability. Therefore, systematic studies have been performed to investigate improvements in the stability, water-solubility and bioavailability of lipophilic bioactives through complexation with cyclodextrins (CDs). The solubility of CoQ10 in water is extremely low, resulting in low bioavailability when administered orally. Bioavailability of CoQ10 was enhanced significantly by complexation with γ-CD. CoQ10 generally agglutinates, but the dissociated CoQ10 from γ-CD was captured by bile acid to form micelles without aggregation and therefore both solubility and bioavailability were enhanced. RALA is available as a functional food ingredient but is unstable to heat or acid. To stabilize RALA, complexation with γ-CD was investigated. RALA was unstable molecule, whereas RALA-γCD complex was stable under the acidic conditions of the stomach and was easily absorbed in the intestine. CD complexation is a promising technology as a formulation aid for oral delivery of insoluble or unstable ingredients such as CoQ10 and RALA.
    Jin Chen*, Dan Meyers, Deborah Keefe, Jing Yu and Gangadhar Sunkara
    Familial chylomicronemia syndrome (FCS) is a rare lipid disease resulting in severe hypertriglyceridemia caused by complete lipoprotein lipase (LPL) deficiency. Pradigastat, a highly potent and specific diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) inhibitor that blocks chylomicron triglyceride (TG) synthesis, is an attractive therapy for patients with FCS.
    Objective: To summarize the data from in vitro and clinical pharmacokinetic studies of pradigastat
    Results: Following oral administration, pradigastat was slowly absorbed and slowly eliminated. Food intake did not impact pradigastat exposure to any clinically relevant extent. Pradigastat was primarily metabolized by hepatic glucuronosyl transferase (UGT) enzymes UGT1A1 and UGT1A3, and elimination occurred via faeces through the biliary pathway. In patients with severe hepatic impairment, pradigastat exposure was doubled; but not in patients with mild to moderate hepatic impairment or with renal impairment. Pradigastat displayed low drug-drug interaction potential, exhibiting no interaction with atazanavir, probenecid, rosuvastatin, digoxin, warfarin, or oral contraceptives. In FCS patients, pradigastat substantially reduced plasma fasting TG levels (70% at 40 mg), post-prandial TG, and apolipoprotein B-48. Pradigastat had no effect on the QTc interval in humans, hence there was no risk of pro arrhythmia typically associated with prolonged QTc; and, pradigastat also did not induce photosensitivity in humans at the highest clinical dose of 40 mg.
    Conclusion: Pradigastat could be taken without food. No dose adjustment was needed in consideration of its drug-drug interaction potential, and no dose adjustment was needed for patients with mild to moderate hepatic impairment or with renal impairment.
    Mini Review
    Zorawar Singh* and Rumina Singh
    Graphene derivatives have emerged as important materials in the development of anticancer drug delivery systems. Graphene, graphene oxide and graphene quantum dots have been used for the successful delivery of different anticancer drugs including Doxorubicin and Camptothecin. The present paper focuses on the recent approaches in the formulations and use of various graphene based nano-composites in drug delivery systems.
    Short Communication
    Udita Datta, Mariangela Martini, and Wen Lin Sun*
    There are sex differences in the vulnerability to cocaine abuse and addiction. Understanding the differences is critical for developing the sex-tailored prevention and treatment strategies. Cocaine addiction is characterized by the pathological motivation for cocaine accompanied by the diminished motivation for natural rewards. Thus, the motivational impact of cocaine relative to natural rewards likely determines the attractiveness of cocaine and likely plays a role in the vulnerability to cocaine abuse and addiction. This study aimed to determine whether the relative magnitudes or contrast of the motivational impact between cocaine and sucrose is different between sexes. To this end, cocaine-naïve out bred Wistar rats were trained to self-administer sucrose pellets and the motivation for different amounts of sucrose was then determined as the breakpoints under the progressive-ratio schedule of reinforcement. Following the sucrose tests, the same rats were trained to self-administer cocaine and the motivation for different doses of cocaine was similarly measured. For the female rats, the motivation was also measured during the diestrus and proestrus/estrus, respectively, to determine the impact of the estrous cycle on the motivational effects of cocaine and sucrose. The differences between the breakpoints of cocaine and sucrose were significantly larger in the males. The enhanced motivational contrast may contribute to the increased vulnerability to recreational cocaine abuse and addiction in the males.
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