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  • ISSN: 2379-089X
    Volume 4, Issue 6
    Short Communication
    Guidotti Alessandro*, Dong Erbo, and Grayson Dennis R
    Progress in developing new, more effective, and less toxic drugs to treat the complex symptomatology of schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar (BP) disorder has been hampered by the lack of objective diagnostic tools to assess prodromes, progression severity, and therapeutic responses to drugs. Additional fundamental barriers to the identification of new drugs to effectively treat SZ and BP disorder include the incomplete understanding of the etiopathogenetic mechanisms underlying the symptomatology of these diseases and the inability to reproduce the complex nature of these disorders in laboratory animals.
    Research Article
    KentaroMorita, Keiichi Motoyama, TaishiHigashi, Kayoko Hayashida, Irhan Ibrahim Abu Hashim Mohamed, and Hidetoshi Arima*
    Cyclodextrin (CyD)-based polypseudorotaxanes (PPRXs) are of interest as novel drug carriers and biomaterials. In the present study, we evaluated the PPRXs of polyethylene glycol (PEG)-graftedpolyamidoamine dendrimerconjugate with α-CyD(PEG-α-CDE) as sustained release carriers for siRNA. PEG-α-CDE/siRNA complex showed adequate physicochemical properties and cellular association. In addition, siRNA released, at least in part, from the complex in Colon-26 cells and showed the RNAi effect with negligible cytotoxicity. PEG-α-CDE/siRNA complex formed water-insoluble PPRXs with α-CyD and γ-CyD. The PPRXs greatly augmented the encapsulation efficacy of siRNA. Importantly, the release of PEG-α-CDE/siRNA complex from the PPRXs was prolonged at least for 24 h in vitro. Moreover, decreasing the volume of the dissolution medium was concomitant with prolonging the release of the siRNA complex from the PPRXs. Collectively; these findings suggest that PEG-α-CDE/CyD PPRXs are useful for the sustained siRNA release systems.
    Klara Szentmihalyi*
    Cisplatin chemotherapy causes several metabolic alterations in the living system. One of these is the modification of element level in the body fluids and organs resulting modified element correlations. Therefore the purpose of this study was to calculate the correlations between element pairs. In a rat experiment, animals were treated with cisplatin by injected i.p. with a single dose of 6.5 mg/kg body weight, while the control group received 1% (w/v) methyl cellulose at 10 mL/kg body weight, p.o. by gastric gavage twice daily for 14 days. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) was used for measuring Al, As, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, P, Pb, Pt, S, Sb, Si, Sn, Sr, V, Zn content, and polarography was used to determine Se content in the plasma and kidney of rats. From the results, correlation calculations were made. The results show that most of the significant correlations in the plasma of control rats remained in the plasma of cisplatin treated rats that prove the fast hydrolysis and excretion of cisplatin from the blood. In the kidney where the platinum accumulation changes the element level at a higher rate, the correlations significantly modified and remained only for 5 element pairs (Mg-P, Mg-S, Mg-Zn, P-S and S-Zn).
    Review Article
    Eugenia C Pereira*, Monica CB Martins, Maria de Lourdes L Buril, Rocio Santiago, Emerson Peter da S Falcao3, Nicacio H da Silva, Maria Estrella Legaz, and Carlos Vicente
    It can be obtained from lichens biologically-active extracts and pure substances, many of them of phenolic nature. They are usually obtained by using organic solvents, such as diethyl ether. In this paper the usefulness of ether for the obtainment of crude extracts and the subsequent purification of pure substances from Brazilian lichen is reviewed, as well as alternatives to their production through cells or thallus immobilization in bioreactors and their entrapment in inert matrix.
    Naima Ifourah, Hayet Belkacemi*, Yasmina Bakouri, and Tahar Sadoun
    The chemical modification of hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC) by selective carbonation of the hydroxyls, located on the C2’ secondary carbons of the 2’-propyl hydroxyl radical, carried by the primary C6 carbon of the carbohydrate unit of the cellulose derivative, led to an HPMC carboxylate derivative (CPMC). This substituent gives it the property of a negatively charged polyelectrolyte. Structural changes were demonstrated by infrared analysis and by XRD. The modified biomaterial is applied for the preparation of microparticles containing an antihypertensive active substance, valsartan, by the simple emulsion (W/O) process and solvent evaporation.
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