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  • ISSN: 2379-089X
    Volume 5, Issue 1
    Review Article
    Fabiana Paganotii Roque, Simone Nataly Busato de Feiria, and José Francisco Höfling*
    Researches aimed to identify and extracting compounds isolated from plants have been used for many years with the aim of discovering bioactive compounds due to the increased resistance of microorganisms to the antimicrobial commercially used. The action of bioactive compounds present in the seeds, bark, leaves and fruits from plants of the genus Pterodon spp., has been studied in bacteria, yeasts and protozoa, related to antimicrobial, antiinflammatory, antiproliferative and against infection by nematodes. Yeasts of the genus Candida spp., bacteria of the genus Streptococcus spp. and Staphylococcus spp., which are associated with biofilm formation in medical devices, has developed a strategy to resist antimicrobial agents and cells of the immune system. This brief review brings a panoramic view concerned to the Medicinal properties of Peterodon pubescens against microorganisms and oral biofilm studies in the field of microbiology.
    Edith Sim* and Nicola Laurieri
    Isoniazid is still, 60 years after its introduction, a main front line drug for treating tuberculosis. Isoniazid, a hydrazine compound, is metabolized through N-acetylation by the arylamine N-acetyltransferase (NAT) enzyme in humans and its metabolism was important in establishing the early observations on pharmacogenetics since its metabolism to N-acetylisoniazid was identified as being genetically controlled. The incidence of adverse side effects to isoniazid is also linked to its metabolism. These side effects include liver toxicity, neuropathy and a condition resembling the auto-immune disorder Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). The latter side effect shares similarities with side effects to hydralazine, an anti-hypertensive, which is also a hydrazine and, like isoniazid, induces SLE-like symptoms in a sub group of patients who are almost exclusively slow NATacetylators. The complement system in humans is essential for immune complex clearance and the chemical mechanism by which isoniazid and hydralazine interact with the activation of the complement cascade has been established, demonstrating their interference with the activation of the thiol ester in complement component C4 such that immune complexes become deposited at inappropriate tissue sites in the small blood vessels, kidneys and joints, thereby generating a SLE-like condition. The relevance of immunohistocompatibitility types relating to the polymorphic C4 type is also explored.
    Short Communication
    Pir Salim Mahar*
    Mitomycin C is an alkylating agent with an anti-proliferative activity. Because of its potent anti-fibroblastic activity, it is used in multiple ophthalmic procedures where inhibition of proliferation of fibroblasts and vascular ingrowths is required.
    Jose A. Carmona-Negron and Enrique Melendez*
    While early detection technology for cancer has been peruse as one of the priorities to extend life expectancy, small molecule therapeutic drugs treatment remains as the first line of defend again cancer problems. The hormone dependency for Estrogen Receptor positive breast cancer has led to the development of therapeutic drugs known as selective estrogen receptor modulators. However, selective estrogen receptor modulators drugs have been limited to only few candidates were tamoxifen is considered the golden standard. Despite the short-term success of tamoxifen application, long-term treatment of this drug has been associated with: breast cancer resistance in hormone therapy and an increased incidence of endometrial cancer by 4 to 6.9-fold. New advances in the characterization, at atomic level, of protein-ligand complexes and the development of new algorithms and computational chemistry, the rational development of more selective and active drugs has been possible in medicinal chemistry. In this context, an in silico virtual screening on the Estrogen Receptor-Ligand Binding Domain has performed in order to identify new lead candidates as templates for new drugs in this study. A library of commercial available compounds (~650,000 drug-like small molecules) were docked into the Estrogen Receptor-Ligand Binding Domain using as template the protein-ligand complex crystal structure with 4-hydroxytamoxifen. Particularly attention has been made to the principal structural components of the best docking results for the library compounds entering the protein ligand binding domain and lateral side chain toward the alpha helix 12 of the Estrogen Receptor alpha that could result in the stabilization of protein antagonist form.
    Editorial
    Satish B. Balakrishna*
    One definition of the word research opines that “Research is to see what others have seen but to think which others have not”. This definition necessitates independent creative thinking by the researcher/investigator.
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