• Contact Us
  • Indexing
  • Submit Manuscript
  • Open Access
  • Journals
  • Home
  • ISSN: 2333-6692
    Volume 5, Issue 3
    Research Article
    Brenda Jenkins*, Daniel F. Sarpong, Monique S. White, Marinelle Payton, Donna Antoine-Lavigne, Ricardo Brown, and Clifton C. Addison
    Objectives: To test the association of three measures of stress (Negative Life Events (NLE), Global Perceived Stress (GPS) and Weekly Stress Inventory (WSI)) with obesity in African American (AA) adults.
    Methods: We examined data from 3589 participants from the Jackson Heart Study (JHS). We hypothesized that stress would be positively associated with measures of obesity [Body Mass Index (BMI) and central adiposity, measured by waist circumference (WC)]. Covariates included age, gender, education, family income, and cigarette smoking, and physical activity, type of occupation, marital status, dietary fat intake, and dietary carbohydrate intake. Sex-stratified multiple linear regressions were performed.
    Results: The three stress measures were significantly correlated. However, WSI was excluded from the analysis. Men had a lower mean GPS score compared to women. For women, body mass index and mean WC were positively associated with GPS and NLE. In men, GPS and NLE were positively and linearly related to WC although the trend test for GPS was not statistically significant. GPS and NLE individually were positively related with BMI. NLE was positively and significantly associated with BMI. After adjusting for age, both stress measures, GPS and NLE were jointly associated with BMI. After adjusting for the additional covariates, GPS and NLE were jointly associated with BMI. GPS and NLE were associated with WC.
    Conclusion: Examining the association of stress on obesity depends on the measurement used to assess stress because variations exist when comparing males and females. Our data indicate that women had higher BMI and larger WC than men.
    Kamlakar Tripathi*, Santosh K. Yadav, Awadhesh K. Arya, and Richik Tripathi
    Aim: To evaluate IL-6 and TNF-α concentration in the serum of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with and without foot complications.
    Materials and methods: We recruited 100 subjects with T2DM having foot ulceration (group C), 100 subjects with T2DM without foot ulceration (group B) and 100 healthy control without any history of diabetes mellitus and foot ulceration (group A). IL-6 and TNF-α serum levels were evaluated by Enzyme-linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (ELISA).
    Results: IL-6 and TNF-α levels were significantly higher in the serum of group C as compare to group B and group A (p<0.001). There was no significant difference in the BMI amongst three groups, however patients in group C were overweight (BMI>25).
    Conclusion: In conclusion current study revealed that the excessive presence of IL-6 and TNF-α might play a role in diabetic foot ulcer pathogenesis and delayed wound healing.
    Mini Review
    John B. Classen*
    There is an epidemic of obesity, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome and associated conditions. Patients with these conditions often have markers of increased inflammation. Many researchers have published that nutrition overload caused the epidemic of obesity and the associated inflammation which leads to type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. A contrasting view has provided extensive evidence that vaccine induced immune overload has caused an epidemic of inflammation and this inflammation caused epidemics of obesity, type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. The data reviewed in these manuscripts provides proof that immune overload, not nutrition overload has been the major contributing factor for the epidemics and inflammation associated with the epidemics. Several lines of evidence are reviewed including evidence that inflammation precedes obesity in many patients, the lack of inflammation in many obese patients, an epidemic of inflammation in thin patients, and an epidemic of obesity in children under 6 months of age. The failure to control the obesity epidemic is blamed on the focus on nutrition and ignoring the root cause, vaccine induced immune overload. Once a patient has developed metabolic syndrome with type 2 diabetes providers are too frequently subjecting their patients to further immune overload by administering yearly influenza vaccines and many other vaccines. This action makes metabolic syndrome more difficult to reverse. The plan to reduce obesity must be focused on preventing immune overload and not blaming patients for their diet. The epidemic of obesity can be reversed through discontinuation of vaccine practices that result in immune overload.
    Review Article
    Saika Manzoor, Ashraf M. Gania, Syed Douhath Yusuf, Shajrul Amin, Rizwana Habib, and Fouzia Rashid*
    Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrinopathies of clinical importance, affecting the women of reproductive age. Women with PCOS are clinically diagnosed by the presence of menstrual irregularities, hirsutism, acne which are commonly occurring symptoms while as acanthosis nigricans and alopecia are rarely occurring symptoms in these women. PCOS is a vicious cycle with absence of any particular pathway regarding its pathogenesis. Various co-morbidities have been found associated with PCOS. Likewise disturbance in normal metabolic pathways like endocrine system, reproductive system, glucose metabolism, lipid metabolism, coagulation system and inflammation system are usually predictors of various diseases like Coronary Vascular Diseases (CVD), atherosclerosis, obesity, Venous Thrombo Embolism (VTE), Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM), Insulin resistance (IR), pregnancy complications, infertility, cancers etc. in PCOS women. Thus, PCOS is not just a disease but is considered to be a syndrome. Various options are available regarding the management and the treatment of PCOS .Life style modifications: including weight reduction by increasing physical activity and reduction of high calorific diet being first choice regarding PCOS management. Moreover, Oral Contraceptive Pills(OCPs) along with life style modifications are being used as first line of treatment in women with PCOS. OCPs seem to be drug of choice in case of adolescent girls where the pregnancy is not main concern. They help to reduce various hyper androgenic symptoms like acne, hirsutism, alopecia, acanthosis nigricans and help to regularize the menstrual cyclicity. But, the use of high dose OCPs for longer duration of time puts the OCP-user at various future health risks which include: further metabolic derangements, hyper-coagulation and hyper-inflammation, cancer risk etc. Thus, women with PCOS need to be assessed carefully regarding the various complications associated with the syndrome which can otherwise get further worsened due to various risk factors involved with the use of OCPs mode of treatment. This review mainly deals with the use of OCPs in PCOS women as a treatment mode and will high light positive and negative influences of OCP use in these cases in light of various research articles that have been reported in these areas of study.
    Maria Palmetun Ekback*
    Hirsutism, excessive hair growth in women in a male pattern distribution, is an international issue and approximately 5 to 15% of the general population of women is reported to be hirsute. It causes profound stress in women. As hirsutism is a symptom and not a disease it is important to find the underlying cause. Polycystic ovary syndrome is the most common cause but other not so common endocrinology disorders must be excluded. Mild hirsutism could be seen in a woman with normal menses and normal androgen levels (idiopathic hirsutism). Ferriman- Gallwey scale (F-G) is used for assessment of hairiness. The maximum score is 36 and a score over 8 is considered as a hirsuid state. The aim of the medical treatment is to correct the hormonal imbalance and stop further progress. Oral contraceptives (OCP) are recommended as first line treatment. Spironolactone is the first choice if there is indication for antiandrogen therapy. Antiandrogens should be combined with an OCP as antiandrogens are teratogenic. Photo-epilation or electrolysis is mostly needed in order to reduce the amount of hair. Multiple treatments are required. Hair reduction with each session with photo-epilation is estimated to 15% to 30%. Medical therapy and laser or IPL should be combined for best result.
    Asish K. Saha*
    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an energy sensing enzyme that plays a central role in nutrient sensing andinsulin sensitivity. It is a heterotrimeric protein that is activated when energy levels are low (i.e., exercise or starvation) and signals to increase ATP generating processes and decrease ATP consuming processes [1,2]. The consequences of its activation (mediated through a high AMP/ATP or ADP/ATP ratio and phosphorylation of AMPK Thr172) is known.Numerous physiological, pharmacological, natural and hormone activators of AMPK are available and some of these are currently used clinically for the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D) [3].
  • Current Issue Highlights
  • JSciMed Central welcomes back astronaut Scott Kelly and cosmonaut Mikhail Kornienko.

    Wonder Women Tech not only disrupted the traditional conference model but innovatively changed the way conferences should be held.

    JSciMed Central Peer-reviewed Open Access Journals
    10120 S Eastern Ave, Henderson,
    Nevada 89052, USA
    Tel: (702)-751-7806
    Toll free number: 1-800-762-9856
    Fax: (844)-572-4633 (844-JSCIMED)
    E-mail: jedo@jscimedcentral.com
    1455 Frazee Road, Suite 570
    San Diego, California 92108, USA
    Tel: (619)-373-8720
    Toll free number: 1-800-762-9856
    Fax: (844)-572-4633 (844-JSCIMED)
    E-mail: jedo@jscimedcentral.com
    About      |      Journals      |      Open Access      |      Special Issue Proposals      |      Guidelines      |      Submit Manuscript      |      Contacts
    Copyright © 2016 JSciMed Central All Rights Reserved
    Creative Commons Licence Open Access Publication by JSciMed Central is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
    Based on a work at https://jscimedcentral.com/. Permissions beyond the scope of this license may be available at https://creativecommons.org/.