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  • ISSN: 2333-7141
    Early Online
    Volume 8, Issue 1
    Short Communication
    Manuel Jiménez Aguilar*
    For decades, carbon dioxide emissions have been an environmental and health issue. Amines like Monoethanolamine (MEA) have long been used for CO2 capture by chemical absorption. However, some drawbacks, such as toxicity, low stability and high cost limit widespread adoption of this technology. New and green solvents could be a possible solution to this issue. CO2 solubility in glycerol-urine mixtures at ambient temperature as a green solvent was studied. The experiments were carried out in a pressure pump keeping in contact at room temperature CO2 at 3 bar of pressure with different dilutions of glycerin and urine. The absorbed CO2 is measured in dry samples with a microbalance.
    Results indicated that the solubility of the gas in the glycerol-urine mixtures increased almost linearly with diluted glycerol. Carbon dioxide absorption values indicate that aqueous solutions of Glycerol and Urine can be a good system for CO2 capture by physical abpsortion.
    Research Article
    Mbong EO*, Osu SR, Uboh DG, and Ekpo I
    A field research was conducted to assess abundance and distribution of species in relation to soil properties in Sedge-dominated Habitats in Uyo Metropolis, Southern Nigeria Systematic sampling method was used. The result of the study revealed that a total of 12 plant species of which 3 were members of the family Cyperaceae were identified in the habitats studied. The Cyperaceae members found were of the genus: Cyperus. Other associated species found were Sida acuta, Scoparia dulcis, Chromolaena odorata, Eleusine indica, Ludwigia decurens etc. The highest density values obtained in this study is characteristic of Cyperus iria in Habitat 4 (9500 st/ha) while the least density value is characteristic of Plastostoma africanum in Habitat 2 (200st/ha). Multivariate correlation and regression techniques evidenced that these differences in density of the sedges reflected the functions of various important soil properties such as pH, exchangeable Ca, soil moisture, total nitrogen and available phosphorus. Most specifically, the current result concludes that Cyperus iria showed strong affinity for alkaline soils rich in calcium while Cyperus difformis and Cyperus rotundus showed strong preference for acid soils. Cyperus difformis, Cyperus rotundus and Cyperus haspan flourished in soils rich in organic manure while Cyperus iria colonies were found thrived on soils with limiting levels of phosphorus This result lends knowledge and practical application in environmental management, weed science and habitat ecology.
    Rodrigo C. Eco, Kelvin S. Rodolfo*, Jolly Joyce Sulapas, Anieri M. Morales Rivera, Alfredo Mahar F. Lagmay, and Falk Amelung
    Extensive land subsidence in and around Metro Manila, largely from overuse of groundwater, is orders of magnitude more rapid than sea-level rise from global warming. It enhances the exposure of its residents to worsening floods and tidal incursions, and greatly exacerbates the storm-surge threat. Additionally, differential movements at pre-existing faults causes considerable damage to overlying properties. The subsidence has been recognized and quantified since the 1990s from the rates at which wells apparently rise as the ground around them sinks, the frequency with which roads have had to be raised, and social surveys of historical flooding and tide heights. To assess the impact of the subsidence and devise appropriate countermeasures requires that the subsiding areas be delineated and their subsidence rates be measured more precisely. Toward those ends, 2003-2010 Envisat and 2007-2011 ALOS PALSAR-1 imagery were processed using the PSInSAR method. During these periods, Manila, CAMANAVA, Rosario, San Pedro, Las Piñas and Dasmariñas subsided by at least 2-4.2 cm/yr, due mainly to over-extraction of groundwater. InSAR data also reveal subsidence in highly urbanized areas that also rely heavily on groundwater along southern segments of the West Marikina Valley Fault, but none on the northern segment. Land subsidence along the coast.
    Alexander N. Stojarov*, Aleksey E.Okeanov, and Vladislav V. Khrustalev
    In present study we analyzed the incidence of thyroid cancer in the districts of the Brest region over a 30-year period after the Chernobyl accident, in which in April 1986 the population received significant doses of radiation to thyroid gland due to the incorporation of I-131. The incidence of thyroid cancer in contaminated districts of the Brest region was compared to that in the Lepel district of the Vitebsk region, which was not contaminated with iodine isotopes. According to the cancer registry, there were 235 cases of thyroid cancer in Stolin and Luninets districts of the Brest region. The peaks of incidence in the Brest region were at 13 and 32 years after exposure. In contrast to this, in the “clean” region of Belarus, that is Vitebsk region, just one peak of incidence was clearly distinguished with a latency period of about 17 years. Among the residents of the Brest region, a group of patients stands out who were from 40 to 50 years old at the time of diagnosis. That is, this group received exposure to the thyroid gland due to I-131 at the age of 10-20 years. In contrast, in non-irradiated people living in the Vitebsk region, the cancer is more often diagnosed much later, at the age of about 60 years. The cumulative incidence in Stolin and Luninets districts of the Brest region was approximately two times higher than in the “clean” Lepel district of the Vitebsk region. The data obtained show that further analysis of morbidity should be carried out in comparison with radiation exposure, i.e. taking into account the doses to the thyroid gland in the study cohort.
    Success AE*, Oyedoh EA, Amenaghawon NA, Shahin A, Christian O, Nadeem AK
    A three variables full factorial design was use to optimize the yield of bioactive components of Tetrapluera tetraptera fruit extract. This study using extraction temperature, particle size, extraction time, considered for experimental design. During the optimization of the extraction process parameters, the yield was optimized to obtain 30.545% which correlated the experimental observed yield of 31.17%. The optimized of temperature, particle size and time were obtained: 90oC, 3mm and 50 mins respectively. Gas chromatography Mass spectrometer (GC-MS) analysis of Tetrapluera tetraptera fruit showed pharmaceuticals and bioactive compounds such as Acetic acid, Glyceraldhyde, Glycidol, D-Fructose etc. with D-fructose was most abundant, about 49.6% area of the sample.
    Research Article
    Kavi Bhushan Singh Chouhan, Roshni Tandey, and Vivekananda Mandal*
    Threats of carcinogenic environmental pollutants on vegetables and other crops can never be overlooked. This current research takes into account the impact of stress on a commonly used dietary plant Raphanus sativus (cultivated in close vicinity of a thermal power unit) due to liberation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH’s), from thermal power units. Chlorophyll content, impact on membrane integrity (MDA content) and plants antioxidant defence system (superoxide dismutase enzyme), was evaluated. Real time evidences through histochemical analysis were also generated. Impact of PAH’s on the nutraceutical principles were also determined. PAH accumulation in tissues and SEM analysis for stomatal configuration was also studied. Results were clear indicative of the fact that under the influence of PAH, the oxidative homeostasis of the plant collected from thermal power unit site was significantly compromised. All results where compared to a control sample (cultivated in a site relatively free from industrial pollution). Roots and leaves of the said plant were separately evaluated. Metabolic trouble was indicated through increase in % inhibition activity of SOD to the extent of 70% in leaves. Nutraceutical principles namely ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol, phenolics and flavonoids were significantly inhibited to the extent of 66%, 43.8%, 52.7% and 43% respectively. Cumulative PAH accumulation was 68 times higher with stomata found blocked. Such dietary plants cultivated under the influence of PAH pollution are under intense metabolic trouble and compromised in their nutraceutical richness and also serve as the store house of such environmental pollutants which then infringe into the human biological system.
    Review Article
    Rajesh Kumar Prajapati*
    This article describes the efficacy of safeguards policies of international development funding agencies like including World Bank, Asian Development Bank, etc. at municipality level in the urban infrastructure development projects along with the intentions to suggest ways the remedy of safeguards compliance weaknesses and overcome the constraints. Limited technical expertise and managerial skills in many borrower countries to implement safeguards policies in the development projects. Basically, in the areas of technical, contract management and institutional constrains and stakeholders involvement are needed improvement at the borrowers level. The intention of the article is to assess the weaknesses of compliances relating to safeguards process in urban infrastructure development projects and suggest remedy to overcome these constraints.
    Editorial
    Sukhendu Dey, Sandipan Pal, Apurba Ratan Ghosh, and Palas Samanta*
    The COVID-19 (coronavirus disease), was first reported in Wuhan, PRC China and spread globally. The rapid spreading of COVID-19 disease, since its first outbreak in India, has forced many people to admit into the hospital; simultaneously, affected different aspects of people’s lives including front-line workers such as medical workers.COVID-19 pandemic also triggered a wide variety of mental and psychological problems (namely panic disorder, irritability, anxiety, muscle aches, tiredness and depression) as well as generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), symptoms. Present study is the first nationwide report of COVID-19 associated consequences among medical workers during COVID-19 epidemic with particular emphasis on mental and psychological distress.
    Review Article
    Kuldeepsingh A. Kalariya*, Deepa Shahi, Amrit Lal Singh, and Satyajit Roy
    Stomata are minute microscopic pores found in the epidermis of the aerial parts of plants and reported to be present about 400 million years ago in the earth eco-system. They serve as a gate way of gaseous exchange in plant on which the whole world depends to get oxygen to breathe. In this review efforts have been made to discuss process of stomatal development and its control by a genetic tool box comprising of many genes and signalling cascades. There is discussion on interlinking of genes to formation of stomata in strict control of relevant genes. Identity of cells, asymmetric cell division, stomatal density, patterning and clustering are discussed with respect to signals coming from environment and or the hormonal cascade. Fate of absorbed light energy in green plants is briefed and stomatal opening and closing mechanism under initial and mild stress conditions which shifts primary metabolism to the secondary metabolism resulting in increased secondary metabolites production is highlighted. Impact of disrupted membrane integrity and permanent damage to photosystem II on growth in plants under prolonged and severe stress conditions is elaborated. In nature, plants have different pheno-phase, life span, preferred growth season, soil type and climatic requirements. Duration and intensity of stress at different phenol-phase may have different impacts on secondary and primary metabolism. Focusing particularly on medicinal plants, we explained how difficult is to define a hypothetically optimum stress condition which cause increase in secondary metabolites without significantly compromising the potential biological yield. Studies on crop specific responses to stress of various intensities and duration imposed at different pheno-phases are required to be conducted that may further help in explaining the optimum stress conditions in medicinal plants.
    Research Article
    Rafia Afroz*, Maya Puspa, Mohammed Niaz Morshed, Salina Kassim, Rosylin Binti Mohd Yusof, and Amirul Afif Muhamat
    Alternative funding sources such as green financing other than government and financial institutions are becoming increasingly relevant in promoting green development. Green private equity, for example, has emerged as a funding vehicle that assists green entrepreneurs in obtaining funding in developed economies. Renewable energy projects face two financial obstacles: a lower rate of return than fossil fuel projects and a higher chance of default. Despite the government’s efforts to fund renewable energy, initial costs and a lack of support structures stymie the industry’s development. In general, there is a lack of funding and confidence from local investors, as well as financial institutions’ knowledge and perception of renewable energy. Government green procurement may also help to create financial instruments like credit lines and revolving funds that are explicitly designed for investments in cleaner production. In conclusion, to ensure the effective implementation of green growth in Malaysia, the formulation of sustainable development policies and regulatory initiatives must take into account a comprehensive finance, technology, and capacity-building support.
    Alexander N. Stojarov, and Vladislav V. Khrustalev
    The proportion of primary hypertension in women who, at different stages of pregnancy, received irradiation of the thyroid gland (TG) due to the incorporation of radioactive iodine (I-131) as a result of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, is about 40% of the whole cardiovascular pathology. The main group for the study included 221 women, the control group included 40 women. The increase in the incidence of this pathology began immediately after the accident, i.e. after 1986. Three decades later, it has no tendency to reach a plateau. In the dynamics of the annual incidence of essential hypertension during the 30 years following the accident, three maximums can be distinguished: in 2003, 2009, and 2014. These data cannot be associated with the detection of pathology as a result of clinical examination, since in the group of non-irradiated pregnant women, identical in age, social status and place of residence, only one case of primary hypertension was recorded during the same period of time. A dose dependence was found in the induction of essential hypertension among women from the main group. This disease occurred during the formation of the absorbed dose by thyroid gland due to radioiodine in the range of 50-100 mGy and more than 160 mGy. The obtained data can be explained by the instability of specific genes of thyroid cells of the organism of pregnant women after the incorporation of I-131, which are capable of being responsible for the synthesis of thyroid hormones, and so in other functions, which will be reflected in the subsequent appearance of hypertension.
    Short Communication
    Gabriel Pérez-Lucas, Abderrazak El Aatik, and Simón Navarro*
    Soil solarization, a sustainable method of soil disinfection was tried on two semi-arid soils located in Murcia (SE Spain) to study chemical changes in soil properties using polyethylene film as a cover. A decrease in organic matter and an increase in electrical conductivity were observed, while no significant changes in pH, total nitrogen and phosphorus were detected between mulched and unmulched soils. For Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic Acid (DTPA) Extractable (Ext-) micronutrients such as copper, manganese and iron, a weak trend towards increased availability was observed after solar heating, although only iron and manganese showed significant differences between covered (solarized) and uncovered (unsolarized) soils.
    Review Article
    Zhengjiang Liu, Pengxiang Ge, and Mindong Chen*
    PM2.5 is still an environmental issue of global concern, closely related to human health. PM2.5 carries a large number of chemical substances, bacteria, viruses, etc., which can enter human lungs with respiration, and even enter alveoli and blood, causing oxidative stress, inflammatory reaction and DNA damage in the human body. In addition to harming the respiratory system, digestive system and cardiovascular system, PM2.5 can also adversely affect human reproduction and normal development. It has been confirmed that exposure to PM2.5 can reduce the concentration and activity of male sperm, thereby interfering with sperm-egg binding. PM2.5 exposure to women during pregnancy can increase the incidence of high blood pressure, cause significant changes in germ cells, and increase the probability of premature birth, low birth weight and birth defects in the fetus. Furthermore, there may also be negative influences during the later development, such as obesity, asthma, frail and poor brain development. This review aims to explore the impact of PM2.5 on human reproduction, the health of pregnant women and fetuses, and the development of offspring, to provide some help for the health protection of PM2.5 and the prevention of related diseases.
    Viktor I. Karamushka*
    The paper is aimed at the analysis of the environmental sustainability concept as well as features of the performance and progress indicators as an important tool of sustainable water resource management (WRM) in context of sustainability. The research methodology is based on the comparative analysis of the content of the relevant international policy and research information as well as national reports and statistical data (Ukraine case study), published by 2022.
    The concept of environmental sustainability (ES) is considered with special attention to the ES indicators in water sector. Analysis of the WRM practices demonstrates that there is no internationally accepted standard indicators’ framework applicable for any WRM system, and therefore appropriate sets of indicators are designed and introduced in WRM of different water systems in many countries. For these purposes different models and assumptions were successfully used (e.g., performance model, mission - goals - objectives hierarchy model, DPSIR model, natural, economic and social relationships model, and others). Social and economic indicators in most cases reflect context implicitly while environmental sustainability indicators are mainly indirect by nature.
    Detailed consideration of the WRM in Ukraine as a case study resulted in the conclusion that the country concentrates efforts on achieving the reasonable objectives (meeting demand for water of population, industries and other water users; protection of water sources, and water emergencies prevention / mitigation). At the same time, the national WRM policies and programs are still lacking explicit objectives to achieve sustainability and, consequently, relevant indicators. It is expected that raising stakeholders’ awareness, strengthening the capacity of managers, and application of the best available practices of elaboration of effective WRM indicators will increase a sustainability of the WRM system in Ukraine and other countries.
    Sorin Cosofret and Axel Holmberg*
    It is impossible to imagine how humanity could be a species without computers, which are the product of hundreds of millions of years of evolution. Chimpanzees and Bonobos are genetically 98.7% the same as humanity, and the remaining 1.3% likely represents a lack of computers in their societies. However, whilst computers have many uses (i.e. word processing, selling NFTs for a fraction of the initial purchasing price, or forcing more than 500 million people to own a copy of your 13th album whether they wanted to or not), with an increase in computing power comes an increase in responsibility, both from the scientists making the computers and the computers themselves. As seen in recent prescient documentary footage (Kubrick; 1968; Cameron, 1984; I Robot, 2004), the over-evolution of computers can lead to dangerous results, with robotic creatures dominating humanity, both socially, politically, and sexually. In this review, we assess whether computing power has reached its maximum safe limit, whether society would be improved without computers, and what the dangers are with rampant computers gone wild.
    Research Article
    George F. Antonious*, Mohammad H. Dawood, Eric T. Turley, and Thomas G. Trivette
    Summer squash, Cucurbita pepo was field grown under fourteen soil treatments: Sewage Sludge (SS); Horse Manure (HM); Chicken Manure (CM); vermicompost; inorganic fertilizer (Inorg); commercial organic fertilizer (Org); and no-mulch (NM) control treatment. Soil treatments were also mixed with biochar to make a total of 14 treatments to assess the impact on 1) squash fruit yield and quality, 2) fruit vitamin C, total phenols, and soluble sugars content, and 3) soil microbial activity expressed as urease and invertase secretions. Results revealed that SS treatments increased squash yield and fruit number by 114 and 116 %, respectively compared to NM control treatment. Fruits of plants grown in Inorg mixed with biochar (InorgBio) increased fruits vitamin C, total phenols, and soluble sugars by 73%, 52%, and 7%, respectively compared to Inorg with no-biochar treatment. However, biochar was not consistent in increasing soil urease and invertase activities. The use of animal manure is an affordable way to reduce dependence on mineral fertilizers. Results revealed that the addition of biochar to Org fertilizer increased squash fruit weight and numbers of fruits compared to Org not treated with biochar. No single amendment increased all fruit composition and soil urease and invertase activities.
    Research Article
    Mindong Chen*, Wentao Yu, and Maoyu Cao
    In order to study the component characteristics and sources of PM2.5 in the northern suburbs of Nanjing, 191 PM2.5 samples were collected and quantitatively analyzed for water-soluble ions (WSI), organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC) and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC). The annual average mass concentrations of OC, EC, and WSOC were 5.30 μg m-3, 0.96 μg m-3, and 3.09 μg m-3, respectively. The variation characteristics of their seasonal abundance were basically the same, which reached the maximum in winter and the lowest in summer. Based on the ratio of organic carbon to elemental carbon, we find that the air in the northern suburbs of Nanjing is affected by coal burning, exhaust emissions and biomass combustion. The annual mean mass concentration of WSI in PM2.5 was 23.00 μg m-3, and the order of seasonal concentration was winter > autumn > spring > summer. The WSI in PM2.5 are mainly SO42-, NO3-, and NH4+. Through the concentration ratio of NO3-/SO42-, we found that mobile sources were the main sources of pollution in autumn and winter, while stationary sources were the main sources of pollution in summer. Through the iterative calculation of PMF, five sources of PM2.5 are determined, which are second generation (37.5%), traffic-related source (36.7%), combustion source (9.6%), marine source (8.5%), and industrial emissions (7.7%). In different seasons, PM2.5 is significantly correlated with SO42-, NO3-, and NH4+, indicating that PM2.5 mainly comes from secondary generation.
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