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  • ISSN: 2333-7141
    Early Online
    Volume 6, Issue 1
    Research Article
    Tiyou JP, Desobgo ZSC*, and Nso JE
    A three factor Doehlert design was adopted to build statistical models to optimize the action of temperature, time and liquid/solid ratio, on reducing sugars and total phenolic compounds content during sorghum stems hydrothermolysis. Therefore, the models revealed that increasing temperature and time allowed an increase of reducing sugars and total phenolic compounds content, while the impact of liquid/solid ratio was negatively significant. An augmentation of liquid/solid ratio was necessary for solubilization of hemicelluloses and lignin. Also, optimization of the concerted factors impacts for reducing sugars gave a combination of 210°C, 60 min, 10 mL/g with a maximal reducing sugar of 15.16 mg/mL, while optimization of total phenolic compounds content gave a combination of 210°C, 48 min, and 10 mL/g with a maximal total phenolic compound of 0.81mg/mL. Consequently, a compromise was found to obtain high sugar content (≥ 14 mg/mL) and, to obtain at the same time high total phenolic compounds content (≥ 0.8 mg/mL). It was also demonstrated that the best way of removing lignin from sorghum stem was to apply a lower temperature (150°C) and increase the pretreatment severity (meaning increase the reaction time).
    Bahram Momen*
    Metabolic activities produce the required energy for biochemical processes in living tissues. In plants, metabolic activity has commonly been assessed by measuring the rate of CO2 evolution or O2 consumption in the dark (dark respiration). However, these measures may not reflect the total metabolic rate accurately because some intermediates of respiratory carbon metabolism can be diverted into synthetic reactions and never appear as CO2, and the energy use efficiency and temperature dependency of different synthetic pathways using respiratory products varies [1,2].
    Marcello Bazzanti*
    Until now, Marcello Bazzanti published about 100 papers (in extenso) and more than 80 abstracts of congress dealing with three main topics of freshwater sciences which is summarized as follows:
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