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  • ISSN: 2333-7141
    Early Online
    Volume 6, Issue 1
    Research Article
    Tiyou JP, Desobgo ZSC*, and Nso JE
    A three factor Doehlert design was adopted to build statistical models to optimize the action of temperature, time and liquid/solid ratio, on reducing sugars and total phenolic compounds content during sorghum stems hydrothermolysis. Therefore, the models revealed that increasing temperature and time allowed an increase of reducing sugars and total phenolic compounds content, while the impact of liquid/solid ratio was negatively significant. An augmentation of liquid/solid ratio was necessary for solubilization of hemicelluloses and lignin. Also, optimization of the concerted factors impacts for reducing sugars gave a combination of 210°C, 60 min, 10 mL/g with a maximal reducing sugar of 15.16 mg/mL, while optimization of total phenolic compounds content gave a combination of 210°C, 48 min, and 10 mL/g with a maximal total phenolic compound of 0.81mg/mL. Consequently, a compromise was found to obtain high sugar content (≥ 14 mg/mL) and, to obtain at the same time high total phenolic compounds content (≥ 0.8 mg/mL). It was also demonstrated that the best way of removing lignin from sorghum stem was to apply a lower temperature (150°C) and increase the pretreatment severity (meaning increase the reaction time).
    Bahram Momen, Shawna J. Behling, Lee D. Hansen, and Joe H. Sullivan*
    Sugar maple is an important component of northeastern North American forests that has been declining for several decades. Sugar maple decline may alter stand structure and long-term stability of its habitat. The decline may be related partly to the effects of acid deposition on soil nitrogen (N) and base cations such as calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg). Calorespirometric measurements of rates of plant metabolic activity have been suggested as a rapid measure of plant response to environmental conditions. Instantaneous rates of metabolic heat production (Rq), CO2 production (RCO2), and metabolic efficiency (Rq/ RCO2) were measured on leaf tissue of Acer saccharum Marshall (sugar maple) seedlings and mature trees, during two summers, in 12 forest plots in the Catskill Mountains, NY, in response to a 2-way factorial combinations of N and Ca+ Mg addition to forest soil. Contrary to our expectation, no beneficial effect of Ca+ Mg addition was detected in terms of increased metabolic rate of sugar maple seedlings or mature trees. N addition decreased the metabolic rates in mature trees, suggesting that N addition can decrease the long-term growth potential of mature sugar maple trees in our study site, which is reported to be N saturated due to continuous atmospheric N addition.
    Guillaume Hubert* and Sebastien Aubry
    The objective of this work is to investigate impacts of solar and galactic cosmic rays on flights by considering high realistic paths issued from Flight Plan updated with Radar Data. Models and approaches used were previously validated by comparison of calculated and measured ambient dose equivalents or cosmic ray variations during quiet solar activity and GLEs. Thus, to consider continents or sub-continents representative of European international air traffic, five flights were selected. They link Paris (France) to Los Angeles, New York (United States), Tokyo (Japan), Johannesburg (South Africa) and Sao Paulo (Brazil) city. Moreover, several hundred realistic paths are considered for each of these flights. The objective is to analyze statistically the ambient dose equivalents considering path characteristics and GLE/quiet scenario, and thus demonstrate the complexity to assess the real radiation exposure, particularly during solar event.
    Editorial
    Bahram Momen*
    Metabolic activities produce the required energy for biochemical processes in living tissues. In plants, metabolic activity has commonly been assessed by measuring the rate of CO2 evolution or O2 consumption in the dark (dark respiration). However, these measures may not reflect the total metabolic rate accurately because some intermediates of respiratory carbon metabolism can be diverted into synthetic reactions and never appear as CO2, and the energy use efficiency and temperature dependency of different synthetic pathways using respiratory products varies [1,2].
    Marcello Bazzanti*
    Until now, Marcello Bazzanti published about 100 papers (in extenso) and more than 80 abstracts of congress dealing with three main topics of freshwater sciences which is summarized as follows:
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