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  • ISSN: 2333-7141
    Early Online
    Volume 8, Issue 1
    Short Communication
    Manuel Jiménez Aguilar*
    For decades, carbon dioxide emissions have been an environmental and health issue. Amines like Monoethanolamine (MEA) have long been used for CO2 capture by chemical absorption. However, some drawbacks, such as toxicity, low stability and high cost limit widespread adoption of this technology. New and green solvents could be a possible solution to this issue. CO2 solubility in glycerol-urine mixtures at ambient temperature as a green solvent was studied. The experiments were carried out in a pressure pump keeping in contact at room temperature CO2 at 3 bar of pressure with different dilutions of glycerin and urine. The absorbed CO2 is measured in dry samples with a microbalance.
    Results indicated that the solubility of the gas in the glycerol-urine mixtures increased almost linearly with diluted glycerol. Carbon dioxide absorption values indicate that aqueous solutions of Glycerol and Urine can be a good system for CO2 capture by physical abpsortion.
    Research Article
    Mbong EO*, Osu SR, Uboh DG, and Ekpo I
    A field research was conducted to assess abundance and distribution of species in relation to soil properties in Sedge-dominated Habitats in Uyo Metropolis, Southern Nigeria Systematic sampling method was used. The result of the study revealed that a total of 12 plant species of which 3 were members of the family Cyperaceae were identified in the habitats studied. The Cyperaceae members found were of the genus: Cyperus. Other associated species found were Sida acuta, Scoparia dulcis, Chromolaena odorata, Eleusine indica, Ludwigia decurens etc. The highest density values obtained in this study is characteristic of Cyperus iria in Habitat 4 (9500 st/ha) while the least density value is characteristic of Plastostoma africanum in Habitat 2 (200st/ha). Multivariate correlation and regression techniques evidenced that these differences in density of the sedges reflected the functions of various important soil properties such as pH, exchangeable Ca, soil moisture, total nitrogen and available phosphorus. Most specifically, the current result concludes that Cyperus iria showed strong affinity for alkaline soils rich in calcium while Cyperus difformis and Cyperus rotundus showed strong preference for acid soils. Cyperus difformis, Cyperus rotundus and Cyperus haspan flourished in soils rich in organic manure while Cyperus iria colonies were found thrived on soils with limiting levels of phosphorus This result lends knowledge and practical application in environmental management, weed science and habitat ecology.
    Rodrigo C. Eco, Kelvin S. Rodolfo*, Jolly Joyce Sulapas, Anieri M. Morales Rivera, Alfredo Mahar F. Lagmay, and Falk Amelung
    Extensive land subsidence in and around Metro Manila, largely from overuse of groundwater, is orders of magnitude more rapid than sea-level rise from global warming. It enhances the exposure of its residents to worsening floods and tidal incursions, and greatly exacerbates the storm-surge threat. Additionally, differential movements at pre-existing faults causes considerable damage to overlying properties. The subsidence has been recognized and quantified since the 1990s from the rates at which wells apparently rise as the ground around them sinks, the frequency with which roads have had to be raised, and social surveys of historical flooding and tide heights. To assess the impact of the subsidence and devise appropriate countermeasures requires that the subsiding areas be delineated and their subsidence rates be measured more precisely. Toward those ends, 2003-2010 Envisat and 2007-2011 ALOS PALSAR-1 imagery were processed using the PSInSAR method. During these periods, Manila, CAMANAVA, Rosario, San Pedro, Las Piñas and Dasmariñas subsided by at least 2-4.2 cm/yr, due mainly to over-extraction of groundwater. InSAR data also reveal subsidence in highly urbanized areas that also rely heavily on groundwater along southern segments of the West Marikina Valley Fault, but none on the northern segment. Land subsidence along the coast.
    Alexander N. Stojarov*, Aleksey E.Okeanov, and Vladislav V. Khrustalev
    In present study we analyzed the incidence of thyroid cancer in the districts of the Brest region over a 30-year period after the Chernobyl accident, in which in April 1986 the population received significant doses of radiation to thyroid gland due to the incorporation of I-131. The incidence of thyroid cancer in contaminated districts of the Brest region was compared to that in the Lepel district of the Vitebsk region, which was not contaminated with iodine isotopes. According to the cancer registry, there were 235 cases of thyroid cancer in Stolin and Luninets districts of the Brest region. The peaks of incidence in the Brest region were at 13 and 32 years after exposure. In contrast to this, in the “clean” region of Belarus, that is Vitebsk region, just one peak of incidence was clearly distinguished with a latency period of about 17 years. Among the residents of the Brest region, a group of patients stands out who were from 40 to 50 years old at the time of diagnosis. That is, this group received exposure to the thyroid gland due to I-131 at the age of 10-20 years. In contrast, in non-irradiated people living in the Vitebsk region, the cancer is more often diagnosed much later, at the age of about 60 years. The cumulative incidence in Stolin and Luninets districts of the Brest region was approximately two times higher than in the “clean” Lepel district of the Vitebsk region. The data obtained show that further analysis of morbidity should be carried out in comparison with radiation exposure, i.e. taking into account the doses to the thyroid gland in the study cohort.
    Success AE*, Oyedoh EA, Amenaghawon NA, Shahin A, Christian O, Nadeem AK
    A three variables full factorial design was use to optimize the yield of bioactive components of Tetrapluera tetraptera fruit extract. This study using extraction temperature, particle size, extraction time, considered for experimental design. During the optimization of the extraction process parameters, the yield was optimized to obtain 30.545% which correlated the experimental observed yield of 31.17%. The optimized of temperature, particle size and time were obtained: 90oC, 3mm and 50 mins respectively. Gas chromatography Mass spectrometer (GC-MS) analysis of Tetrapluera tetraptera fruit showed pharmaceuticals and bioactive compounds such as Acetic acid, Glyceraldhyde, Glycidol, D-Fructose etc. with D-fructose was most abundant, about 49.6% area of the sample.
    Research Article
    Kavi Bhushan Singh Chouhan, Roshni Tandey, and Vivekananda Mandal*
    Threats of carcinogenic environmental pollutants on vegetables and other crops can never be overlooked. This current research takes into account the impact of stress on a commonly used dietary plant Raphanus sativus (cultivated in close vicinity of a thermal power unit) due to liberation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH’s), from thermal power units. Chlorophyll content, impact on membrane integrity (MDA content) and plants antioxidant defence system (superoxide dismutase enzyme), was evaluated. Real time evidences through histochemical analysis were also generated. Impact of PAH’s on the nutraceutical principles were also determined. PAH accumulation in tissues and SEM analysis for stomatal configuration was also studied. Results were clear indicative of the fact that under the influence of PAH, the oxidative homeostasis of the plant collected from thermal power unit site was significantly compromised. All results where compared to a control sample (cultivated in a site relatively free from industrial pollution). Roots and leaves of the said plant were separately evaluated. Metabolic trouble was indicated through increase in % inhibition activity of SOD to the extent of 70% in leaves. Nutraceutical principles namely ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol, phenolics and flavonoids were significantly inhibited to the extent of 66%, 43.8%, 52.7% and 43% respectively. Cumulative PAH accumulation was 68 times higher with stomata found blocked. Such dietary plants cultivated under the influence of PAH pollution are under intense metabolic trouble and compromised in their nutraceutical richness and also serve as the store house of such environmental pollutants which then infringe into the human biological system.
    Review Article
    Rajesh Kumar Prajapati*
    This article describes the efficacy of safeguards policies of international development funding agencies like including World Bank, Asian Development Bank, etc. at municipality level in the urban infrastructure development projects along with the intentions to suggest ways the remedy of safeguards compliance weaknesses and overcome the constraints. Limited technical expertise and managerial skills in many borrower countries to implement safeguards policies in the development projects. Basically, in the areas of technical, contract management and institutional constrains and stakeholders involvement are needed improvement at the borrowers level. The intention of the article is to assess the weaknesses of compliances relating to safeguards process in urban infrastructure development projects and suggest remedy to overcome these constraints.
    Sukhendu Dey, Sandipan Pal, Apurba Ratan Ghosh, and Palas Samanta*
    The COVID-19 (coronavirus disease), was first reported in Wuhan, PRC China and spread globally. The rapid spreading of COVID-19 disease, since its first outbreak in India, has forced many people to admit into the hospital; simultaneously, affected different aspects of people’s lives including front-line workers such as medical workers.COVID-19 pandemic also triggered a wide variety of mental and psychological problems (namely panic disorder, irritability, anxiety, muscle aches, tiredness and depression) as well as generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), symptoms. Present study is the first nationwide report of COVID-19 associated consequences among medical workers during COVID-19 epidemic with particular emphasis on mental and psychological distress.
    Review Article
    Kuldeepsingh A. Kalariya*, Deepa Shahi, Amrit Lal Singh, and Satyajit Roy
    Stomata are minute microscopic pores found in the epidermis of the aerial parts of plants and reported to be present about 400 million years ago in the earth eco-system. They serve as a gate way of gaseous exchange in plant on which the whole world depends to get oxygen to breathe. In this review efforts have been made to discuss process of stomatal development and its control by a genetic tool box comprising of many genes and signalling cascades. There is discussion on interlinking of genes to formation of stomata in strict control of relevant genes. Identity of cells, asymmetric cell division, stomatal density, patterning and clustering are discussed with respect to signals coming from environment and or the hormonal cascade. Fate of absorbed light energy in green plants is briefed and stomatal opening and closing mechanism under initial and mild stress conditions which shifts primary metabolism to the secondary metabolism resulting in increased secondary metabolites production is highlighted. Impact of disrupted membrane integrity and permanent damage to photosystem II on growth in plants under prolonged and severe stress conditions is elaborated. In nature, plants have different pheno-phase, life span, preferred growth season, soil type and climatic requirements. Duration and intensity of stress at different phenol-phase may have different impacts on secondary and primary metabolism. Focusing particularly on medicinal plants, we explained how difficult is to define a hypothetically optimum stress condition which cause increase in secondary metabolites without significantly compromising the potential biological yield. Studies on crop specific responses to stress of various intensities and duration imposed at different pheno-phases are required to be conducted that may further help in explaining the optimum stress conditions in medicinal plants.
    Research Article
    Rafia Afroz*, Maya Puspa, Mohammed Niaz Morshed, Salina Kassim, Rosylin Binti Mohd Yusof, and Amirul Afif Muhamat
    Alternative funding sources such as green financing other than government and financial institutions are becoming increasingly relevant in promoting green development. Green private equity, for example, has emerged as a funding vehicle that assists green entrepreneurs in obtaining funding in developed economies. Renewable energy projects face two financial obstacles: a lower rate of return than fossil fuel projects and a higher chance of default. Despite the government’s efforts to fund renewable energy, initial costs and a lack of support structures stymie the industry’s development. In general, there is a lack of funding and confidence from local investors, as well as financial institutions’ knowledge and perception of renewable energy. Government green procurement may also help to create financial instruments like credit lines and revolving funds that are explicitly designed for investments in cleaner production. In conclusion, to ensure the effective implementation of green growth in Malaysia, the formulation of sustainable development policies and regulatory initiatives must take into account a comprehensive finance, technology, and capacity-building support.
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