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  • ISSN: 2333-7141
    Early Online
    Volume 5, Issue 4
    Short Communication
    Yuan Yu-Kang* and Wu Meng-Ru
    Taiwan is a subtropical island, surrounded by the Taiwan Strait and Pacific Ocean; therefore, its bio-geographic isolation offers ecological advantages. However, historical factors, led to the invasion of water cabbage (Pistoia stratioyes) and water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) to nearly all of the low altitude land waters on the island. These two kinds of plants expand widely very fast and have no predators on the island. The water pollution problems provide them with sufficient nutrients, leading to the deterioration of the ecological environment and blocking the river ways. After decades of pollutions, it is now hard and costly to solve the problem by normal river-cleaning techniques. From the point of view of succession, water hyacinth competitiveness is stronger than that of water cabbage; if put them into the same waters with fair competition, the water hyacinth will always be the ultimate survivor. Taking SDS as an indicator, the removal rate reached the optimal 94.1% in the stable stage. Since it is not easy to change the current human activities, such as discharging high volumes of sewage and livestock wastewater into river bodies, utilizing the competition and succession between these two species, and with regular clear management methods, we can maintain keeping their relationship during the primary succession stage, which will then improve the water quality to a certain degree.
    Wielgolaski FE*
    This short communication shows an example from northernmost Europe of possible cascading effects of land use and climate changes. It is suggested that complexities of effects may be common also in other biomes and thus important both for man and all biology in general.
    David A. Pillard* and Rami B. Naddy
    While several studies have been focused on the toxicity of elevated concentrations of one or more of the major freshwater ions (e.g., Ca2+, Na+, Cl-), fewer data are available on the adverse impacts of ion deficiency. Short-term chronic (STC) toxicity tests, with Ceriodaphnia dubia, Daphnia magna, and the fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas, were conducted using laboratory-prepared test waters representing a range of water quality conditions. In addition, acute studies of an ion-deficient (reverse osmosis) effluent were conducted with C. dubia and P. promelas. Ceriodaphnia dubia was the most tolerant of the three species in STC tests, with 50% survival in deionized water, while there was 100% mortality of the other two species. Reproduction of C. dubia was unaffected in any of the other reconstituted waters, even at a hardness of only 10 mg/L as CaCO3. In treatments having surviving organisms, growth (biomass) of D. magna was significantly reduced in the softest water, while growth of P. promelas was significantly reduced in the two softest waters. In the acute studies, only P. promelas survival was significantly reduced in RO effluent. A modest increase in the hardness and alkalinity of the RO effluent eliminated the ion deficient effect, resulting in 100% survival. Based on these data, D. magna and P. promelas have similar sensitivities to ion deficiency. These studies demonstrate the importance of evaluating ion deficiency as well as excess when assessing wastewaters and receiving waters.
    Research Article
    Eldred Tunde Taylor*, Joe Milton Beah, Mariatu Barrie, Matthew Sahr James, Daniel Kaitibi, and Abdul Sannoh
    The use of biomass produced mosquito repellants would continue to remain one of the intervention measures in the foreseeable future to prevent malaria which remains one of the biggest killers in sub-Saharan Africa. Burning these products in homes with little ventilation may result in harmful levels of particulate matter in the indoor micro environment. PM2.5 and PM10 are well known and important pollution indicators that hinder human health and they are usually released during the burning of mosquito coils. To gain insight into the levels and distribution of these indicators, a realtime study on the emission of PM2.5 and PM10 among seven different products of mosquito coils combusted in the outskirt of Bo in southern Sierra Leone was carried out for two weeks. Results indicated that greater fraction of particulate matter was in the PM10 mode comprising 62%-73% for all the products. In most cases the difference between PM2.5 and PM10 were considerable. Premium and Djimba products were noted to be high emitters of PM2.5 and PM10 but Wanmali product was recorded to be the least emitter. Few products showed good agreement between PM2.5 and PM10 linear regression model fit and the PM2.5/PM10 ratio was noted to be consistent in values for most products except one. Our results support the view that the use of inexpensive devices to monitor household air pollution in developing countries is plausible.
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