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  • ISSN: 2572-2492
    Current Issue
    Volume 3, Issue 1
    Mariana Gomes Lima*
    Mariana obtained a Bachelor's Degree in Biological Sciences at Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro-UFRRJ (2003-2007). A Master's Degree in Veterinary Science at UFRRJ with the study of biochemical effects of Euphorbia splendes var. hisloppi on the metabolism and physiology of Biomphalaria glabrata infected and not infected by Schistosoma mansoni (2008 - 2010).
    Viroj Wiwanitkit*
    The Zika virus infection is the present important public health problem. Several reports show the atypical clinical problems due to this emerging new arbovirus infection. Regarding the interrelationship between Zika virus infection and metabolic disorder, there are very few reports. Some reports show the interrelationship between Zika virus infection and diabetes mellitus, the hyperglycemic state.
    Review Article
    Federico Cacciapuoti*
    Background: Increased homocysteine (Hcy) levels is a consequence of its reduced re-methylation to Methionine (Met) and a cause of insufficient substrates' trans-methylation of that, responsible of several and important functions of the human body.
    Aims: In this report, we defined the causes and the mechanisms inducing a reduction of chemical reactions of re-methylation of Hcy to Met and trans-methylation of Met to substrates in the presence of increased Hcy serum concentration (HHcy).
    Methods and results: The consequences of HHcy in reducing re-methylation of Hcy and these dependent from insufficient substrates' methylation represent the main causes of several diseases HHcy-related.
    Conclusions: The detrimental effects consequent to increased Hcy concentration are obtained both for toxic effects of HHcy (re-methylation) and as consequence of reduced trans-methylation of substrates. Daily supplementation with folic acid and B6-12 vitamins, even through lowers elevated Hcy serum concentration, seems to not prevent secondary cardiovascular acute events, but it is important for primary and secondary prevention of neurologic and psychiatric detrimental events HHcy-related.
    Federico Cacciapuoti*
    Background: DNA-hypomethylation is an epigenetic process inducing several degenerative diseases and healthy aging too.
    Aim: In this review, we explained the mechanism responsible for DNA-hypomethylation and illustrated the main degenerative diseases depending from that.
    Methods: The process originates by an increased homocysteine (Hcy) serum levels, that impairs S-Adenosyl-Methionine/S-Adenosyl-Homocysteine ratio (SAM/SAH ratio), also named as methylation index. This inhibits the enzymes: methyl transferases and thus, DNA methylation.
    Results: The mechanisms originating from DNA-hypomethylation, as a cause of early and massive atherosclerosis, were illustrated in detail. Also mood depression, some degenerative brain's diseases, as Alzheimer and Parkinson were significantly dependent on DNA-hypomethylation, even through these have a multifactorial origin. Some cancers and healthy aging even somehow have bound to DNA-hypomethylation.
    Conclusions: DNA-hypomethylation is a fundamental biological reaction, responsible for several human diseases and due to increased Hcy levels. But, vitamins B6-9-12 supplementation, even through reduces the increased Hcy concentration, seems unable to cancel this epigenetic change.
    Research Article
    Suneetha Devi, Hindumathi Amballa, Fatema Ali Khan*, Swati Chaudhury, and Vasavi Mohan
    Background: Synthetic drugs are available for treatinginfertility in men caused byvarious reasons as in use of anti-folates, poor health and environment etc. Plant supplements are preferred over chemicals due to lesser side effects and replenishment of the body through natural dietary resources.
    Methods: Albino mice (Mus musculus) have been used as animal models for studying the benefits of Amaranthus leaf extract (Soxhlet extraction) and folate on the methotrexate dampened sperm conditions affecting the male fertility in mice.
    Results: Methotrexate-exposed mice with abnormal sperm morphology (p=0.034), reduced motility (p=<0.0001), dead sperms (p=<0.0003) indicated significant damage induced by methotrexate. Folate and Amaranthus treatment reduced damage (pFA=0.30 and pAE=0.37). Mice showed significantly improved mean values, and drastic improvement in sperm motility (pFA = 0.0053, pAE = 0.0024), reduction in dead sperms (pFA = 0.0059 and pAE =0.0092), and no significant impact on the head morphology (pFA 0.38, pAE =0.15).
    Conclusion: In our study we have observed that Folate and Amaranthus extract have noticeably contributed to improvement ofsperm morphology in male mice. Further analysis can be done for evaluating its potential in treating fertility relatedcomplications in men.
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