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  • ISSN: 2379-0547
    Early Online
    Volume 7, Issue 1
    Review Article
    Hit Kishore Goswami*
    In the modern context, chromosomes should be defined as compound unit of inheritance loaded with sequences of nucleic acids following intracellular molecular events of transmission and cell division. The definition is based on observations which must differentiate between the specific chromosome structure and the chromatin structures expelled by chromosomes. During 1960s and 1970s, small chromatin dots were seen in addition to the normal chromosomal component among many metaphases prepared from tissues of brain tumours by various workers but the fact that certain specific chromosomes, under a triggered molecular mechanism, expel chromatin dots was realized as an important event by the present author in 1986. After observing clear pictures of various metaphases and identifying the specific chromosomes by G banding showing emanating chromatin dots, we had named these small chromosome structures as Marker Dots (MDs). These marker dots were repeatedly observed and defined (1986,1992) as being detached from a specific chromosome; sometimes also demonstrated as held or attached with a fine fibril to the chromosome. Lately, these expelled chromosome structures have been named as small Supernumerary Marker Chromosomes (SMCs) by various workers and with the help of most modern techniques like DNA hybridisation in situ, FISH techniques they have also reported exactly same results that chromatin structures are expelled from specific chromosomes. Since neither small marker chromosomes (SMCs) nor marker dots (MDs), though, both have been shown to be produced by any chromosome within a cell, have definite centromere, we can best designate them as marker dots. Our observations already published have exhibited marker dots to be found among some metaphases of normal persons without any phenotypic variable, sometimes in persons with malignant features or sometimes also associated with many pathological conditions as well as in recurrently aborting couples. Hence it would be logical to hypothesize that Emanation of chromatin is an accelerated epigenetic molecular triggering within specific loci of chromosomes. Influence or impact of this expelled chromatin structure might be related with the activated DNA sequences on the chromosome loci from where and which specific chromosome, this has been expelled. Since the mode of origin as well as functional aspects of both Marker Dots and SMCs are identical; both are present in normal persons and sometimes affiliated with some and the other disease, these should be considered as synonyms. Both appear to be the same and can help in genetic counselling.
    Sunil J. Wimalawansa*
    Globally, the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency is high, and the incidence is rising. This common micronutrient disorder is easily reversible; so, as the associated morbidity and mortality among affected people. The incidences of vitamin D deficiency continue to increase and have become a pandemic, mostly because of insufficient exposure to sunlight. Most of the vitamin D needed by humans is generated in the skin after exposure to ultraviolet B (UVB) rays.
    Research Article
    Cristina Masuet-Aumatell, Pietro Ferrara, Fernando Agero, and Josep Maria Ramon-Torrell
    Background: Travelers are at risk of contracting malaria when moving to endemic areas. Yet, despite effective malaria chemoprophylaxis, imported cases of malaria still occur worldwide. Indeed, some studies have shown a varied adherence level; consequently, a traveler care gap could occur.
    Methods: A prospective cohort study was carried out in 2017 to evaluate the rate of malaria chemoprophylaxis adherence among Spanish travelers.
    Results: A post-travel questionnaire was completed by 402 travelers to malaria endemic areas that were prescribed chemoprophylaxis: 67 (16.7%) did not take any dose of chemoprophylaxis and 41 (10.2%) had not even carried it while travelling abroad. The adherence of chemoprophylaxis was 68,7% of travelers, being statistically different according to travel duration, onset of adverse events and type of drug prescribed. The non-adherent travelers reported not continuing with administration mainly because of forgetfulness, fear of side effects and low perceived risk because itinerary changes.
    Regarding the onset of the medication's secondary adverse events, one in three (35.2%) reported at least one, being more frequent among patients that took mefloquine than atovaquone-proguanil (p=0.01). The main adverse events reported by chemoprophylaxis users were gastrointestinal or sleeping disorders.
    Conclusions: The suboptimal compliance of chemoprophylaxis is a major lost opportunity to achieve malaria prevention, so it is an important contributor to the traveler care gap.
    Judella Haddad-Lacle*, Charles J. Haddad, Lori Bilello, Ghania Masri, and David Cox
    Objective: To evaluate the impact of a fruit and vegetable prescription program in poorly controlled, food-insecure diabetic adults.
    Study design: A one group pretest-posttest intervention design prior to and after completion of the six-week intervention. Outcome measures included Hemoglobin A1c (HgbA1c), self-reported fruit and vegetable consumption per day and the 17-item Diabetes Distress Scale score measured pre and post intervention.
    Setting: Community health primary care clinic located in a food desert zone.
    Participants: 44 patients with HgbA1c of 8% or higher and answered Yes to one of the 2 item Food Insecurity Screen.
    Intervention: A Fruit & Vegetable Rx program was used with nutrition education and cooking instruction classes.
    Main outcome measure: Decreased Hemoglobin A1c.
    Analysis: A pre- and post-intervention design comparing the mean difference in Hemoglobin A1c using a paired t-test.
    Results: Showed a decrease in HgbA1c from a mean of 9.88 to 8.46 (p<.001), a decrease in the number of patients who reported a high level of Diabetes Distress from 61% to 7% and an increase in the daily consumption of fruits and vegetables.
    Conclusion and implications: Implementation of nutritional education, including cooking classes, improved HgbA1c levels, increased consumption of fruits and vegetables, and decreased diabetes distress.
    Jucier Gonalves Jnior, Jair Paulino de Sales*, Elysyana Moreira Barros, Sandra Barreto Fernandes da Silva, Nelio Barreto Vieira, Cludio Gleidiston Lima da Silva, Emmanuela Quental Callou de Sa, and Paulo Renato Alves Firmino
    This study aimed to analyze the initial four years of the Program Mais Mdicos (PMM; More Doctors Program) for Brazil, tutored by a public institution from the interior of Cear from the perspective of the involved actors. Aquanti-qualitative study was proposing with lexical and content analysis using the software IRaMutTeQ version 0.7 alpha 2, R software version 3.4.3, to infer associations between terms used in the speech of the actors involved in the PMM. A statistical association (p-value less than 0.08) was found for 13 of the 130 tests performed. A greater association of words imbued with positive meaning was observed, suggesting the performance of the programis beneficial to the assisted municipalities. On the other hand, the three groups (assistance, supervision, and management) correlated the idea of the program with difficulties, probably faced by the precarious conditions of many municipalities in the interior of the state. The larger context in which the PMM is inserted needs to be re-evaluated alongside the need to better mobilize resources, improve management strategies, produce technologies to facilitate assistance, and customize these to the SUS.
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