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  • ISSN: 2379-0547
    Volume 1, Issue 4
    Research Article
    Arjola Zeqollari1, Klodiana Spahiu2, Gentian Vyshka3* and Luljeta Çakërri3
    Abstract: Dyslipidemia is a preventable major risk factor for coronary heart and cerebrovascular disease. Early detection and treatment of hyperlipidemia in diabetic patients reduces the risk for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. The rationale of this study was to get a lipid profile in the Albanian patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 and to evaluate the correlation of lipid profile with BMI, hypertension, and hepatosteatosis. About 102 patients with diabetes mellitus hospitalized in “Mother Theresa” University Hospital Center during the period March 2014 until July 2014 were enrolled in the study and after an overnight fasting, blood samples were taken from the patients to analyze the lipid profile and HbA1c. The patients were also evaluated for the waist circumference, BMI, hypertension and hepatosteatosis through abdominal ultrasonography. Diabetic patients with hypertension had statistically significant higher level of triglycerides and a lower level of HDL cholesterol compared to the patients that had only diabetes. Diabetic patients with BMI ≥ 30 had higher level of LDL, total cholesterol and triglycerides, than the patients with BMI < 30. Although the levels of LDL, total cholesterol and TG were higher in the group of the patients with hepatosteatosis, we did not found any statistically significant relation between hepatic steatosis and lipid profile abnormalities. As a conclusion, we suggest that dyslipidemia is very common among type 2 diabetic patients in Albania; and diabetic patients having HTA, having a BMI ≥ 30 and being female are predisposed to have more pronounced lipid abnormalities.
    Ashleigh Reid1, Amy Hui1, Lisa Back1, Sora Ludwig1, Jonathan McGavock2, Wanda Phillips-Beck4, Heather Dean2, Elizabeth Sellers2, Margaret Morris3 and Garry X. Shen1*
    Objective: To promote a community based prenatal lifestyle program for reducing the risk of obesity and diabetes in women and children in First Nations (FN) rural and remote communities in Manitoba, Canada.
    Methods: Open ended surveys, interviews, and focus group meetings were conducted with pregnant women, traditional elders, and healthcare workers in four rural or remote FN communities to identify barriers to the participation of prenatal women in a prenatal exercise and nutrition program. A collaborative forum was held for multi community residents and healthcare workers to identify both common and community specific barriers and potential solutions. Community specific approaches were developed to reduce identified barriers.
    Results: Participants in the targeted communities identified a number of community specific participation barriers including the lack of program advertising, availability of local transportation, and the absence of childcare facilities. Targeted program and environmental improvements, implemented in collaboration with community partners, resulted in a 3 fold enrolment increase of pregnant women in the prenatal program compared to prior enrolments. Conclusions: A community-based approach helped identify barriers, improve the environment, and increase participation of FN pregnant women in a prenatal lifestyle intervention program in rural and remote communities. The long term impact on pregnancy outcomes for participating FN communities remains to be determined.
    Sevilay Oguz1, Selda Isik1, Ayse Nur Cakır Gungor2*, Murat Seker3 and Zerrin Ogretmen1
    Objectives: Sore nipple is a common problem during the lactation period. We aimed to determine the efficacy of olive oil for the prevention of sore nipples.
    Methods: Patients were requested to apply olive oil to one nipple and lanolin to the other nipple before and after suckling, and they were instructed to clean the lanolin before suckling. They used the olive oil without cleaning the nipple first. They were asked to use the same ointment on the same nipple for each use until the end of the study. If they were satisfied with only one of the ointments, they were advised to continue the study, applying the preferred ointment to both nipples and recording the date when they chose to switch to one modality. If there were no effects within 7 days, they were told to stop the application and failure of the topical treatment was recorded. After 15 days, patients were re-evaluated.
    Results: The study was completed with 56 patients. Fifty (89.2%) of the patients were more satisfied with topical use of olive oil, and 6 (10.8 %) of them were more satisfied with lanolin. The difference was statistically significant. Both products were well tolerated, with no significant adverse events.
    Conclusions: Our study suggests that olive oil is a safe, accessible, and beneficial choice for preventing sore nipples.
    F. Stuart Leeds1 and Josephine F. Wilson2*
    Abstract: Chronic nonmalignant pain (CNMP) is one of the most common reasons for office visits to family physicians. The reluctance of family physicians to utilize rational, opioid centered regimens for CNMP stems not only from inadequate training and experience, but more fundamentally from a failure to establish appropriate inclusion criteria and thresholds for referral. SCOPE is a structured CNMP protocol that is designed to guide clinicians in patient selection, initial treatment plan, and interval management.We have hypothesized that a CNMP protocol built around a scope-of-practice framework can be readily and rapidly taught to family physicians and will result in a number of measurable improvements in the provider’s experience of working with CNMP patients, thus reducing many of the critical barriers to treatment and markedly enhancing access to care for patients with chronic pain. In this study, we provided 12 family medicine residents, across all levels of training, with two half day patient care sessions in a specialized clinic in which the residents were taught to use the SCOPE protocol for initial and subsequent evaluation and treatment of patients with CNMP. Their attitudes, beliefs, and self perceptions with respect to treatment of chronic pain patients were assessed before and after the Protocol Clinic experience. Following SCOPE training, residents’ scores improved for all four indicators, with scores for Subjective Experience and Perceived Competency improving significantly.This is strong initial support for our core hypothesis and suggests that SCOPE is a tool that can be readily learned and applied in clinical settings, yielding significant dividends with respect to physicians’ capabilities and comfort level in managing patients with chronic pain.
    Short Communication
    Aysegul Uludag1, Yusuf Haydar Ertekin1, Murat Tekin1, Sule Yildirim2 and AyseNurCakir Gungor3*
    Introduction: Menarche is a part of puberty. Menarche onset is important and menarche age decreasing over the world. We aimed to investigate the age of menarche and also the effect of anthropometric measurements in menarche age.
    Method: This cross sectional study was conducted in September- December 2013 in the center of Canakkale as a part of a School Health Project. We interviewed with female students aged 10-14 years in five secondary schools. We asked their age, the monthly income of their families, the menarche age, regularity of menstruation, length of cycle, duration of menstruation, and dysmenorrhea, and recorded the responses in the questionnaire. The height and weight of the students were measured as defined in the guidelines.
    Results: The mean menarche age was 12.3 ± 0.8 [10.6-13.9] years. Regular menstruation was defined in 62.7% students. The prevalence of dysmenorrhea was 53.3%. The anthropometric measurements were related to the menarche age, with the exception of BMI. Length of students and menarche age was positively correlated.
    Conclusion: The mean of menarche age was 12.3 ± 0.8 years, and decreased in comparison to the literature from Turkey. The anthropometric measures may be related to menstruation, but not BMI. The menarche age is positively correlated with height. That implies that the height increases until menarche occurs.
    Kanchan Sawlani1, Nitu Kumari1, Ashwani Kumar Mishra2 and Usha Agrawal1*
    Abstract: Oral cancer is fourth most common cancer in India and becoming a significant public health problem. Risk, cause and types of oral cancers are varying among the study and it became a major health problem. Efforts towards early detection and prevention will reduce this burden. In context of this, the present paper focuses on the association of clinic pathological parameters with the grade of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and nodal metastasis during a 12-year period at National Institute of Pathology, India. A total of 42641 subjects were received during this period and 670 cases presented with oral lesions with a gradual increase of six fold in number of cases over the years. Oral cancer was found to be predominant in males in all the years. Incidence of high grade OSCC was more among younger individuals and higher lymph node metastasis was found in the 7th decade. Buccal mucosa was found to be the most common site of OSCC, with the involvement of lip increasing, and that of the alveolus decreasing over the years whereas lymph node metastasis increased considerably. Tobacco smoking and chewing habit is a common habit among the Indian population and the most probable risk factor for diseases occurrence. Health educational programs for awareness, government policies to ban sale of tobacco, early detection of lesions and community programs involving the health workers, dentists and allied medical professionals may contribute towards decreasing burden of disease.
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