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  • ISSN: 2379-0547
    Volume 2, Issue 4
    Research Article
    Patricia Markham Risica1*, Rachel H. Voss2, Martin A. Weinstock3, Kim M. Gans4, Alina Markova5, Waqas Shaikh6, Christopher Chambers7, Martin Kabongo8, Ken Kallail9 and Douglas Post10
    Abstract:
    Background: Obesity, highly prevalent in the United States, heavily impacts healthcare costs and is associated with increases in risk for many chronic diseases and conditions. Interventions to decrease obesity have targeted many facets of this complicated epidemic, including the influence of physician counseling. Individual counseling by clinicians may be an effective component of the approach to prevention and treatment of obesity. However, provider motivation and resources to effectively deliver such counseling may be inadequate. The purpose of this paper is to describe the impact of a web-based intervention to increase provider assessment, counseling and referral for weight management compared to a skin cancer early detection web course.
    Methods: RCT participants were fifty-seven primary care physicians and a sample of their patients (1434 baseline; 1072 one month; 835 twelve months post-intervention). Data were collected from physician surveys, patient telephone calls, and charts before and after taking a web-based weight assessment course or the comparison skin cancer prevention course.
    Results: Providers who received the weight course were more likely than those with the skin course to ask patients about their diet using a written tool (p<.0086) and to discuss obesity (p=.0033) and diet (p=.0152). A significantly higher proportion of patients of physicians receiving the weight course reported that their physician discussed their weight (p=.0198), diet (p=.0208), and physical activity (p=.0043); and were more likely to report being told to improve their diet (.0102), increase fruit and vegetable intake (p=.0470), and increase physical activity (p=.0414); and to receive guidance in healthy eating (p=.0264) and physical activity (p=.0011). Obese patients reported discussing these counseling topics more frequently than the overall group. There were no differences in charting practices between groups.
    Conclusions: The weight web course was associated with improvements in patient-reported provider counseling associated with assessment and management of lifestyle factors related to overweight and obesity.
    Marwa Khalil*
    Abstract:
    Background and objectives: Chronic constipation is one of the most common, yet challenging conditions encountered in pediatric practice. Despite the best treatments, however, multiple cohort studies have demonstrated that recurrence can be as high as 50%. The aim of this study is to explore the effect of health education about physical activity and behavior modifications on decreasing the recurrence rate in children managed from functional constipation.
    Methods: This study was conducted in two tertiary pediatric surgery centers in UAE. Children (4-13 years) who visited these centers suffering from functional constipation were included. Patients were randomly assigned to either group (1) who were managed through the use of medical treatment and dietary modification or group (2) who received the same previous treatment in addition to parent's education about bowel training and life style modification. Both groups were followed up for two years.
    Results: Health education significantly decreased the time needed for treating constipation (t= 11.1, 95% CI= 2.47-3.53). It had also significantly increased the duration of normal bowel habits (t = 10.9, 95% CI= 2.72-1.88) and decreases the number of recurrent attacks (RR = 4, 95% CI= 1.15-17.56).
    Conclusion: Adjunct health education about the physical activity and behavioral modifications was associated with statistically significant less time for management and less recurrence attacks during the management of functional constipation in children.
    Srijana Banjade and Ashok Pandey*
    Abstract:
    Background: Secondary education holds pivotal position in education system of every country, for it is terminal stage for most of students and it also serves as a linkage stage between elementary stage and higher education. There are two sectors working side by side in the field of secondary education, i.e. private sector and government sector in many countries. Private schools are not out performed in developed countries even in poor areas of developing countries. One in five Nepal's is sexually active before the age of fifteen. School children of today are exposed to the risk of being victims of HIV/AIDS.
    Methodology: The quantitative descriptive cross-sectionals study was used to identify knowledge on HIV/AIDS among secondary level student in Sandhikharkha VDC of Arghakhanchi. One public school and one private school were selected by convenience sampling methods. A total of 120 Sample was taken through simple random method from the total students of 9 and 10 classes of selected school. The data has been analyzed by using compared t test.
    Results: The Mean knowledge of private school was 7.433+1.33 and 8.783+1.41 for government school. There is significant difference between mean score knowledge on mode of transmission, signs and symptoms, prevention and control and high risk groups of HIV/AIDS of government and private schools.
    Conclusion: There is not any significant difference between the knowledge score of government and private secondary level student of Shandikharka, Arghakahnchi. These need to be addressed by health education programmes targeting those at higher risk.
    Fatma Taş Arslan, Sadık Aksit and Zumrut Başbakkal
    Abstract:
    Background: Smoking is one of the world's most prevalent and serious psycho-social problems, one that leads to addiction and is damaging to personal health.
    Objectives: The study was performed descriptively in order to determine medical and nursing students' smoking habits, levels of nicotine dependence and the factors that contribute to their smoking.
    Methods: The study participants were 741 students from Ege University's Faculty of Nursing and Medicine. The research data were gathered using questionnaires and the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence.
    Results: It was determined that 25% of medical and nursing students participated in survey were smoking. It was determined that 18% of female students and 40% of male students were smokers. Significant correlations were found between male gender, older age, medical students, low school performance and smoking habits (p=0.000, p=0.050, p=0.006, p=0.011, respectively). Of the students who smoke, 71% were found to have low nicotine dependence levels, 10% had moderate levels and 19% had high levels of nicotine dependence. The study identified statistically significant correlations between nicotine dependence levels and age, years of study, and the smoking habits of both family and friends (p=0.002, p=0.038, p=0.005, p=0.007, respectively).
    Conclusions: The percentage of smokers among nursing and medical students, the health care professionals of the future, was found to be high.
    Case Report
    Neven Pavlov* and Jasna Petric Duvnjak
    Abstract:
    Asthma is the most common chronic disease of childhood with increasing prevalence particularly in children. Many guidelines, especially Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) and Practical Allergology (PRACTAL) have had a great impact on improvement in diagnostic and treatment of asthma in children. In children, as in adults assessment of asthma symptom control is based on symptoms, activities limitation and use of rescue medication. We presente six children with different problems in asthma treatment in attempt to help primary care physician to identify possible options for care improvement of this population.
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