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  • ISSN: 2379-0547
    Volume 2, Issue 5
    Research Article
    H. Blaise Nguendo Yongsi
    In the rural areas where most of the world’s hungry people live, women produce most of the food consumed locally. Their contribution to economic growth could be much higher if they had equal access to essential resources and if they were in healthy conditions. Addressing factors that hamper women could be the key to achieving several Millennium Development Goals. Hence, a study was conducted in a rural setting (Nkondjock) to study personal profile of women farmers, their performance in agricultural and livestock activities. Their health status was measured through their physiological situation and this was done in terms of rated perceived exertion (RPE) and Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA). Using a stratified random sampling technique, 108 women were selected and investigated. Results show that those rural women performed farms preparation activity, crops cultivation, small catering as well as their domestic occupation such as bed and food preparation. Mean rating of perceived exertion has shown that most of them felt exhausted due to strong exertion. With regard to their health status, REBA results showed that 54.6 percent of women were in AL3 category which means that they were in high risk level of postural discomfort.
    Priscilla O. Okunji, Johnnie Daniel, Saadatmand Frough and Mary Hill
    Hospitals with a higher proportion of registered nurses (RNs) or baccalaureate prepared nurses are associated with lower mortality rates in acute myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pneumonia, and stroke. Others include lower rates in decubitus ulcers, failure to rescue, and postoperative deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism and shorter length of stay. A staff of 10% more RNs with higher baccalaureate degree decreased death by a minimum of 4%. However, studies on the relationship between RN full time staffing and inpatients severity of illness are lacking. A retrospective data analysis of inpatient HIV/AIDS discharges was conducted from the 2007 and 2010 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) to determine the nursing variables that affect the patient outcomes. Statistical analysis involved the use of crosstab and multivariate regression for hospital characteristics, and severity of illness. The results showed that RN full time Equivalence (FTEs) per 1000 patient days is one of the most critical variables that affect patient severity of illness for inpatients HIV/AIDS discharges. In addition, a stronger relationship was found in 2010 than 2007 as hypothesized in the study. These findings highlight the need for more RNs to be employed full time in acute care hospitals for improved patient satisfaction with a clinical implication that acute care nurses need training at higher level for empowerment and better patient outcomes.
    Higginbottom GMA and Safipour J
    Aim: To investigate barriers related to access to primary health care by new and established immigrants in a western Canadian province.
    Background: The immigrant population continues to rise in Canada; but impediments to the access of immigrants to primary health care may be threatening their health and well-being.
    Methods: In total, 12 new and established immigrants participated in our focused ethnographic study. Data obtained from semi-structured interviews was analysed using the framework of Roper and Shapira assisted by the use of ATLAS.ti the qualitative analysis software package.
    Findings: We identified four main factors that create barriers to access of primary health care services: (1) information barriers that impede navigation of the health care system by immigrants; (2) communication barriers arising from language difficulties and cultural differences; (3) socioeconomic barriers that make medical expenses unaffordable and the provision of services inequitable; and (4) negative prior experiences that discourage further use of services. We reveal that Canadian primary health care, although universally available, does not necessarily provide equitable care to new and established immigrants because they face considerable barriers in accessing and navigating these services.
    Introduction: Studies indicate that a high percentage of the homeless smoke, but a few discuss specific tobacco-using behaviors among homeless individuals in transitional housing.
    Objectives: This study explores tobacco use and cessation practices, nicotine dependence, and motivation to quit among shelter-using homeless men in Ohio.
    Methods: Questionnaires were distributed to 250 adult homeless men (age >18) at a metropolitan transitional housing program in Ohio. Most recipients (77.6%) returned surveys which included 20 that were filled out through an onsite computer application. We explored unique smoking and quitting behavior; and prior efforts to limit smoking among homeless individuals in a transitional housing.
    Results: Seventy-three percent of adult homeless male respondents were current smokers, and 44% homeless male smokers smoked their first cigarette within five minutes of waking up. Smokers were significantly more likely to be African American than persons of white or other race. Analysis of the Fagerström Tests for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) revealed 41% homeless male smokers to be in the high nicotine dependence category. A majority of smokers displayed low motivation to quit and were either in the pre-contemplation (56.9%) or contemplation (16.3%) stage of change. Among homeless smokers, about 33% actively tried to limit smoking due to health concerns, and 16% were planning to quit in the next six months.
    Conclusion: High prevalence rates of current smoking and nicotine dependence suggests that sheltered homeless smokers are at serious risk of morbidity and mortality attributable to tobacco use. There is hence a critical need to address their unmet smoking cessation needs. A comprehensive health care approach that integrates cessation services into facilities serving homeless persons may help to reduce the burden of their tobacco-related health problems. Proactive engagement of the community and providers could be an important strategy for decreasing smoking rates and encouraging quitting behavior among homeless smokers.
    Case Report
    Belgin Akın, Deniz Kocoglu, Emel Ege and Naile Bilgili
    Backround: The aim of the study is to define the Urinary Incontinance in women over 65 living in the society and to analyze the risk factors in the created case-control groups.
    Method:This is a nested case-control study. The study population was composed of women aged over the age of 65. Te research was conducted in the city of Konya, Turkey between May-June 2011. In total, 452 women were included in this study. The data was collected by the researchers during house visits, by using the survey form in face to face interview technic. Chi-square analysis, Estimated Relative Risk and Logistic Regression Analysis (backward method) was used to evaluate the relation between the dependent and independent variables.
    Findings: 64.7 % of the women in the case group complained of a mixed type of urinary incontinence. 41.5% reported that urinary incontinence symptoms started 2-5 years ago. 39.1% say it affects them partially and a great portion of the women (70.5%) did not consult a doctor. As a result of the logistic regression analysis, being widowed or divorced (OR: 2.170 p=0.001), post-pregnancy urinary incontinence stories (OR=7.238, p=0.000), frequent constipation (OR=1.606 p=0.0429) and trouble walking (OR=1.849 p= 0.007) were defined as significant risk factors.
    Conclusion: Prevention of constipation, doing kegel exercises in postpartum period and using walking assist devices (walker, walking stick …) are important for prevention of urinary incontinence.
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