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  • ISSN: 2379-0547
    Volume 2, Issue 7
    Short Communication
    Lisa C. Campbell*, Sydney Barnwell, Amaris Tippey and Ave Maria Renard
    Abstract:
    In African American communities many men choose to participate in mass screenings even when they have access to screening in other settings (e.g., primary care). Therefore, mass screening events focusing on African American men provide important opportunities for conducting research to better understand the educational needs of men choosing this option and how best to disseminate prostate-specific and broader health education to promote informed screening and greater utilization of primary care. In this pilot study, 182 African American men completed a checklist in which they selected health education topics of interest, just prior to undergoing prostate cancer screening at an annual mass-screening event. Mean age of men was 57.1 years (SD 8.1). Age range was 40 to 77 years. Topics of interest to the greatest number of men were: men's health (68.7% of men), and anatomy and physiology of the prostate (56% of men). Also, men who expressed an interest in learning about ways to communicate more effectively with their doctor were older, on average, than men who were not interested in this topic (59.5 vs 56.2 percent, t (171) = .-2.49, p = .014). These preliminary findings suggest that the African American men participating in this mass prostate cancer screening event perceived gaps in both their prostate-specific knowledge and more general knowledge of men's health and that the educational interests of older men may differ from those of younger men.
    Mary E. Moran* and Daniel J. Blocker
    Abstract:
    The majority of those needing substance treatments are not receiving it. It is estimated that only a tenth of Americans that need treatment for substance use disorders accessed such treatment in a hospital, mental health center, or rehabilitation center. Even as healthcare accessibility increases, many below the poverty line remain uninsured and are at the highest risk for substance misuse. It is critical for Primary Care Providers (PCPs) serving these populations to improve the ability to appropriately assess substance use and intervene. This brief review of substance screening and intervention includes a focus of Bio-psychosocial (BPS) factors that influence substance use for primary care patients. Additionally, three substance use screening tools are reviewed and recommended for use (AUDIT, DAST-10, and CRAFFT). A review of skills and principles is included that may assist PCPs provide a brief intervention to treat patients struggling with substance use. Finally, the advantages of Integrated Behavior Healthcare (IBHC) are reviewed and recommended.
    Trina Aguirre*, Ann Koehler and Anita Tovar
    Abstract:
    The high prevalence of obesity among Mexican-American women put them at risk for type 2 diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and other comorbidities. Therefore, we explored the relationships among body composition (determined using bioelectrical impedance analysis), waist circumference, blood pressure, and glucose levels in rural Mexican-American women voluntarily attending a community cardiovascular health event (Spearman's rho, n = 49, α = 0.05). Most of these women were obese/overweight based on waist circumference (76% and 20%, respectively) or obese/over fat based on body composition analysis (61% and 18%, respectively). As expected, waist circumference and percent body fat were positively correlated (P< 0.001). Most of these women were also hypertensive or at risk of becoming so (51% prehypertensive, 31% hypertensive). Waist circumference (P = 0.007) and age (P = 0.001) were positively correlated with systolic blood pressure and waist circumference was positively correlated with diastolic blood pressure (P = 0.008). Unexpected findings were that most of these women (88%) were under hydrated and that waist circumference and percent body fat were negatively correlated with percent body water (P< 0.001). It is noteworthy that all women who were under hydrated were obese (87%) or overweight (13%), whereas, women with normal waist circumferences or healthy fat levels tended to have normal levels of body water. This suggests that proper hydration should be considered when developing interventions to address obesity. Our results also demonstrated that waist circumference has potential as a means of identifying Mexican-American women with or at risk for obesity and hypertension.
    Perspectives/Commentary
    Deepa A. Vasudevan*, Michelle R. Klawans, Thomas F. Northrup and Angela L. Stotts
    Abstract:
    Obesity is widely under diagnosed among South Asians due to the lack of awareness among health care professionals to adopt ethnicity-specific criteria for BMI and waist circumference (WC). This compilation of three studies conducted in the United States focuses on documenting trends in South Asian obesity and training physicians in modified BMI and WC criteria.
    Mini Review
    Andrea Whitfield, Shayla Bergmann, John Lazarchick*
    Abstract:
    Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is a common, worldwide problem with a prevalence of 9% in toddlers, 9-11% in adolescent girls, and less than 1% in teenager boys. Iron deficiency occurs in both developing and developed countries, making it the most common nutritional deficiency worldwide. In response to this epidemic, the World Health Organization's goal is to reduce anemia in women of reproductive age by 50% in addition to other targeted pediatric initiatives by 2025. IDA is most commonly seen in the following pediatric populations: infants fed cow's milk, toddlers fed large volumes of cow's milk, and menstruating teenage girls not receiving supplemental iron. The second peak of IDA seen in teenagers is primarily due to rapid growth often combined with poor dietary intake of iron. These contributors may be compounded by menstrual blood loss in adolescent females. Iron is an important component in the formation of hemoglobin, the protein found in red blood cells necessary for oxygen transport. Anemia develops as iron stores are depleted. Pediatric patients may deplete iron stores, without presenting with an anemia, which is consistent with iron deficiency. Because of this, hemoglobin alone is not an accurate indicator of iron deficiency anemia. With less iron available, erythropoiesis is affected. A low serum ferritin (in the absence of any concurrent inflammatory condition) is specific for iron deficiency and, coupled with low hemoglobin levels and abnormal red blood cell indices (low mean corpuscular volume [MCV], low mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration [MCHC], and high red cell distribution width [RDW]), supports a diagnosis of iron deficiency anemia.
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