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  • ISSN: 2379-0547
    Volume 3, Issue 1
    Research Article
    Gnyawali S* and Lamsal A
    Abstract:
    Background: Nepal has one of the highest neonatal mortality rates in the world. Studies have shown father's knowledge and involvement in caring for the newborn to be mutually beneficial to both the partners and the baby.
    Objectives: This study was to explore the level of knowledge on feeding, keeping warm, bathing and immunizations of newborn care and to find if there is a relationship between knowledge level and socio demographic characteristics of fathers with their first new born babies.
    Methodology: Sixty fathers with their first newborn baby at post natal ward of Paropakar Maternity and Women's Hospital, Kathmandu were selected randomly and interviewed to explore their knowledge on different aspects of newborn care. Relation of their knowledge regarding newborn care with different socio-demographic characteristics of the respondent was observed.
    Results: Colostrums was believed not to be suitable for newborn feeding by 10% fathers. Fathers from advantaged caste group were found to have good knowledge (p = 0.05) while fathers with low educational attainment were found to have poor knowledge on keeping the newborn warm (p=0.006). Almost 10% fathers did not know the significance of immunization.
    Conclusions: Fathers knowledge on caring the newborn was good, however little education on cleaning aspects of newborn care was found necessary. More studies are required in the rural settings where people's knowledge on newborn care is expected to be low.
    Frank D'Amico*
    Abstract:
    Background: In 2010, Michelle Obama launched the 'Let's Move' campaign aimed at eliminating childhood obesity. In 2015, as part of the fifth anniversary of Let's Move, the First Lady is now challenging Americans to “Gimme Five” things they are doing to lead healthier life.
    Objective: This study was undertaken to determine how widespread the problem of overweight and obesity in adolescents is and if the rates vary by region and gender.
    Methods: To answer this question we used data collected from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS 2008, 2011, & 2014) sample child core segment, ages 12 -17 years. Sample sizes used in the analysis were 8,815 (2008), 12,850 (2011) and 13,380 (2014). Definitions for normal, overweight and obese were defined using CDC growth charts for sex-age BMI distributions. Four regions of the US were already defined within the NHIS. STATA v14.1 software, which takes into account the complex survey design, was used for analysis.
    Results: Overall, 33.3% of male adolescents were either overweight or obese in 2008, 32.3% in 2011 and 31.6% in 2014. Likewise, female adolescents were slightly less than males with 29.0% being either overweight or obese in 2008, 27.5% in 2011 and 28.7 % in 2014. Within any given year, there were large variations in the prevalence's by region. The highest spread in the prevalence's between the regions occurred in 2008; for males overweight the prevalence was 20.7% (North East) vs. 14.7% overweight (West). The ranges were similar for both males and females in each year, with the lowest spread occurring in 2014, females overweight 17.4% (Midwest) vs. 15.8% (West).
    Conclusion: The results show similar estimates across years for the overall prevalence rates for overweight or obesity among boys and girls age 12-17. However, there is huge variation in in the prevalence rates for either overweight or obese adolescents when examine by region within each year.
    Lihua Liu*, Kai-Ya Tsai, Lilyana Amezcua, Gigi Mathew, Amy Lightstone, Margaret Shih, Iris Chi and Michael R. Cousineau
    Abstract:
    Objectives: To examine the impact of immigration and acculturation on health and access to care among Los Angeles County residents to provide specific information on the health conditions and needs of immigrants to inform local health policy and public health program development and implementation.
    Design: Using data from the 2011 Los Angeles County Health Survey, we examined the independent effects of being foreign-born and the length of U.S. residency on individuals' health behaviors, conditions, insurance coverage, and service utilization.
    Results: After adjusting for the sociodemographic covariates, short-term immigrants have lower risks for all of the health conditions examined, while long-term immigrants are losing these health advantages, especially for high cholesterol and diabetes, as compared to non-immigrants. Although acculturation helps improve health insurance coverage and medication affordability, inadequate health insurance and difficulty navigating the health care systems remain to be challenges even for long-term immigrants. Despite acculturation, immigrants display lower risks for smoking, drinking, and drug use than non-immigrants.
    Conclusion: The findings underline the importance of immigrant status in evaluating health disparities and design interventions, and the need to prevent the deterioration of health and preserve healthy behaviors and practices among immigrant populations.
    Wyman Gilmore, Daniel M. Avery*, Melanie T. Tucker, and John C. Higginbotham
    Abstract:
    Background: Patients are receptive to medical student participation in the ambulatory setting. Patient satisfaction with medical student involvement has been confirmed even in rural settings where medical students are less well known. However, evidence for patient understanding of medical education is scarce. No studies have been done to see whether or not the two subjects have any relation to each other. This study sought to determine if the more understanding of medical education a patient has, the more comfortable they are being seen by any doctor-in-training.
    Methods: A survey was designed to assess patient understanding of medical education and attitudes towards medical students and residents. The survey consisted of ten statements assessing patient attitudes and four True/False questions testing patient knowledge about medical education.
    Results: Some 198 patients completed the survey with 76 (39%) from the rural clinic and 122 (61%) from both urban clinics. For knowledge about medical education, participants from the rural clinic scored significantly lower (p<.02) lower than urban counter parts (71% correct on average versus 79%). Those who agree that medical students and residents benefit from experience with a doctor scored higher (79%) than those who disagreed (64%) or were neutral (58%, p< 001).
    Conclusions: Patients at a university clinic are more familiar with the differences in medical students and residents by mass exposure to each group. The more a patient understands about the medical educational process, the more likely they are to have a positive experience with medical students in the ambulatory settings.
    Editorial
    Jenelle M. Hall*, Elizabeth L. Kyle and Lisa P. Edgerton
    Abstract:
    Administration of vaccines has been identified as an essential approach to the prevention of morbidity and mortality caused by vaccine-preventable diseases. However, vaccinations in the United States are significantly below target rates. In the 2014-2015 trend report, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported an overall influenza vaccination rate of 47.1% for people at least 6 months of age [1]. The rate of vaccination for pneumococcal was lowers than that of influenza, with a 31.2% administration rate reported in 2014 [2]. Healthcare workers such as pharmacists, nurses, physicians, and medical assistants among others have the training and capability to improve vaccine administration rates in a variety of healthcare settings.
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