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  • ISSN: 2379-0547
    Volume 3, Issue 3
    Short Communication
    Zsuzsanna Suba*
    At the beginning of the 20th century, regression of breast cancers was achieved by surgical removal of ovaries in 30% of premenopausal cases. This therapeutic result led to the simplified, erroneous conclusion that estrogen deprivation by oophorectomy may be the appropriate cancer therapy. Nevertheless, clinical studies could not find convincing direct associations between serum sex hormone levels and breast cancer development among either pre- or postmenopausal cases. The principle of estrogen-induced cancer was also mistakenly supported by the local estrogen synthesis of the breast, which was supposed to help both the initiation and progression of cancers. Both estrogen deficiency and defective expression of estrogen receptors (ERs) may be the initiators of insufficient estrogen signaling and various human diseases, including breast cancer development. These different pathogenetic mechanisms may provide explanations for the extremely controversial results obtained by sexual hormone measurements in the serum of breast cancer cases. The pharmaceutical industry actively entered into the erroneous fight against estrogens by the development of ER blockers and inhibitors of estrogen synthesis, however, the therapeutic use of anti-estrogens remained unforeseeable and yielded toxic complications. The anticancer effect of estrogen withdrawal or other endocrine manipulations against estrogen signaling could not get above the “magic” 30%, as the majority of breast cancer patients are genetically not capable of appropriate compensatory actions. Long term health outcomes of bilateral surgical oophorectomy jus1tify that in the majority of cases, the defect of hormonal and metabolic equilibrium leads to decreased cellular estrogen surveillance and increase in both morbidity and mortality.
    Research Article
    Richard J. Fehring*, and Dana Rodriguez
    This pilot study describes patterns of unusual uterine bleeding among women prospectively tracking their menstrual cycles on an online charting system. Twenty-four percent of the 122 participants (who contributed 853 menstrual cycles of charts) had some type of unusual uterine bleeding, most of which occurred during the estimated fertile phase.
    Randah Helal and Ghada Elkhawaga*
    Obesity has become a worldwide epidemic. Its prevalence is increasing in developing countries. This study aims to estimate the prevalence, and associated risk factors of obesity and overweight among preschool children. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Mansoura district. The researcher took the anthropometric measurements of preschool children. A questionnaire included questions related to socioeconomic characteristics and maternal feeding behavior toward preschool children was used. 52% of studied children were males, mostly from urban areas. Overweight and obesity were significantly higher among females, children of highly educated mothers, children of over birth weight, among breast fed for at least 3, children consuming > two sugary juice bottles / day.
    Correlations of CFQ subscales, with children's BMI represented significant small effect sizes as regards Restriction and pressure to eat scales, but no significant correlation was found regarding Concern about child weight scale. Logistic regression revealed that preschooler of over birth weight, who consume > 2 sugary juice bottles, exposed to restriction to eat scale and of female sex are more likely to be overweight and obese.
    Although overweight and obesity among preschool children cannot yet be considered a public health problem in Egypt at time but, the trend is clearly toward increasing prevalence.
    Review Article
    Juliana Mota Ferreira, Pamela A. Kulbok, Carlos Antonio Bruno da Silva, Ferreira JM, Kulbok PA, and Silva CAB*
    Primary health care is the key to build a strong healthcare system. Despite the advances already achieved, the development of approaches to improve the services and practices to respond to challenges are required. This review aims to show approaches or strategies to improve primary health care. Searches were conducted in CINAHL, MEDLINE and SCIELO to identify literature from 2011 to 2015. The inclusion criterion was empirical studies addressed to relevant strategies related to primary health care attributes. The major articles were related to support of care, programs or models to manage the practices, and technology tools. Fourteen articles were related to strategies to improve chronic illnesses care. Seventeen articles aimed to improve coordination of care or comprehensiveness. The intervention strategies related to support of care through mobile or email communication in general were effective in the control of cardiovascular risk factors or chronic conditions. Technology tools showed potential for directly engaging patients in their care and improving the feasibility of collecting aggregate data from independent practices. Sharing experiences and effective practices is an important tool to develop primary health care, and this review may be a relevant mechanism to identify challenges and possible solutions to overcome obstacles and achieve better health outcomes.
    Mini Review
    Vincent Lo* and Ronald Chambers
    Human Trafficking, a public health crisis and human tragedy, has gained increasing public awareness in recent years. Healthcare providers play a significant role in identifying and treating this vulnerable patient population. However, in general, physicians are under-informed about the scope of the problem and inadequately understand about the complexity and legal challenges of human trafficking that are defined in the 2000 U.S. Trafficking Victims Protection Act. Physicians need more education and training in recognizing the suspicious signs of patients who are at risk for human trafficking. Proper protocols should be put in place to ensure trust and safe history gathering. Once a patient is identified as a victim of human trafficking, physicians should use a victim and trauma centered approach in their care of the patient. Victims of trafficking often have many health issues. They also have serious psychological trauma and psychiatric disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, anxiety, alcohol and substance abuse and risk of suicide. Physicians should address immediate medical needs and long-term recovery care by working closely with a multi-disciplinary team. Access to immediate resources such as food, safe shelter, and legal assistance is vital. Additional assistance and services can be obtained through Child Protective Services, Health and Human Services, and the Homeland Security Department. Some physicians may choose to provide longitudinal care to human trafficking victims throughout their recovery. Others may choose to become an advocate and leader in the efforts of protecting these victims in their local community.
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