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  • ISSN: 2379-0547
    Volume 4, Issue 3
    Case Report
    Uduak-Obong Morgan*, Etiobong Etukumana, and Abdulahi Jiman
    Postherpetic neuralgia is a chronic pain syndrome and the most common complication of herpes zoster and often diagnosed when pain persists in a dermatomal pattern up to three (3) months after the herpes zoster vesicular eruption has healed. Myths have been known to be associated with herpes zoster infection and have played a negative role in the management of Herpes Zoster infection in some regions. While no treatment entirely prevents postherpetic neuralgia, early use of antiviral agents, effective analgesics, can help to reduce the severity and length of postherpetic neuralgia following herpes zoster infection.Data from a 77-year-old male patient managed for postherpetic neuralgia at the University of Uyo Teaching Hospital, Uyo, Southern Nigeria, is presented. He had sought care, prior to presentation, from a traditional healer. Health education and counselling were important aspect of management instituted for this patient.
    Postherpetic neuralgia is a complication of herpes zoster, and is a common and debilitating condition. This report highlights the clinical evidence that prompt and early treatment of Herpes Zoster infection will reduce the incidence and duration of this distressing sequelae.
    Review Article
    Cusma Piccione R*
    Introduction: Cardiac arrest represents one of the leading causes of death. Often, the principal aetiology is a cardiovascular disease in adults, while trauma is the preponderant cause in teenagers. Cardiac arrest is a time-dependent disease, where the period of time between the event and the beginning of an irreversible neurological damage is limited. In fact the neurons suffer damage as after six minutes of cardiac arrest. Emergency systems have an increasingly rapid response due to the development of health care processes, but in some places, especially rural areas, the period between the start of cardiac arrest and the arrival of the emergency team is extended beyond the eight minutes.
    The role of the bystander thus becomes fundamental for the application of the first ring of the “chain of survival”, since the early application of cardiopulmonary resuscitation can prolong the period of defibrillation and ensure perfusion to the rest of the body, in particular to heart and brain.
    Material and methods: A literature search was conducted on the platforms of Pubmed and CINAHL. The aim is to identify whether or not the crucial role of bystander CPR in terms of medium and long-term survival.
    Discussion: The role of the bystander is fundamental. Inside the bystander CPR, a large representation is given by a healthcare professional (nurse and doctor) running a primary aid and CPR to an unknown victim in a public place. A second representation is given by lay people who followed the teaching courses to learn how to perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation and early defibrillation. Within the group of lay people has been noticed poorer survival in victims subjected to bystander CPR from their parents.
    Research Article
    Kek Khee Loo*, Shemra Rizzo, Susan D'Souza, Qiaolin Chen, Robert E. Weiss, Catherine A. Sugar, Grace Ettyang, Judith Ernst, and Charlotte G. Neumann
    Background: Children in HIV-affected families living in resource-poor areas are vulnerable to malnutrition and have at-risk developmental status. This study examines the impact of nutritional supplementation on the neurodevelopmental outcomes of young children prenatally exposed to HIV in Kenya.
    Methods: A total of 101 children 0-4 years of age born to HIV-infected mothers were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, controlled feeding intervention trial in rural western Kenya. The feeding intervention consisted of one of three isocaloric biscuit-type supplements – soy, wheat, or beef over 18 months. Children were assessed using Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, third edition, every 3 months from ages 6 until 11 months, after which the assessment interval was spaced out to every 6 months, from age 12 months onwards until 47 months. Directly observed treatment (DOT) was used to ensure adherence and to quantify intake of the biscuit supplement.
    Results: Mixed effects modeling did not reveal significant differences among the three intervention groups for Bayley subscale scores in cognitive development, expressive and receptive language, or fine and gross motor domains.
    Conclusion: Provision of animal source food supplementation to HIV-affected children 0-4 years of age does not substantially improve neurodevelopmental outcomes compared to wheat or soy supplementation.
    Candi Jump, Benjamin Sahn, Danielle Wendel, Marianne Augustine, Samantha Fish, Lindsey Albenberg, and Henry Lin*
    Aim: The 'flipped classroom' is a type of inverted learning where students are able to have a first-exposure of the proposed topic prior to the formal education setting. We aimed to implement a novel and sustainable approach using a 'flipped classroom' model to provide residents an improve learning experience that complies with their schedule restrictions while utilizing pediatric subspecialty fellows as teachers.
    Method: Video presentations were developed for 5 topics: constipation, diarrhea, vomiting, failure to thrive, and neonatal cholestasis. The videos followed a standardized format, including: definitions, pathophysiology, differential diagnosis, evaluation, 'red flags', and treatments. Residents on the gastroenterology service participated in a thirty-minute teaching session by a GI fellow, with the expectation that they would view the topic video prior to a session.
    Results: A total of 18 residents participated in this intervention. Of the residents who watched the videos, all believed the video added to their knowledge base and 70% felt that watching the video improved the subsequent teaching session. The sessions were rated as highly interactive by all learners with 87% citing it as an improvement from other formats.
    Conclusion: Implementation of the 'flipped classroom' learning format for residents on an inpatient rotation by pediatric gastroenterology fellows provides structure to the teaching sessions, added to the knowledge base of residents, was enjoyable, and allowed fellows to develop skills as teachers.
    Diete-Spiff KO and Dienye PO*
    Objective: To determine the relationship between overweight/obesity and socio-demographic factors among patients attending the Family Medicine Clinic of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Nigeria.
    Methods: This was a case control study in which 190 obese/overweight patients and non obese sex matched controls aged 18 - 64 years were recruited. Data on socio-demographic characteristics and anthropometric measurements was collected from them with the aid of a structured questionnaire. Descriptive analysis and pair wise comparison of data was done using Statistical package for Social Sciences version 16 (SPSS 16). All tests for statistical significance were two-tailed and performed assuming a type I error probability of <0.05.
    Results: There were 190 overweight/obese respondents (56 males and 134 females) and an equal number of controls (54males and 136 females). Although the difference between the mean ages of the cases (37.35 ± 7.02years) and control group (for age and gender) (36.58 ± 5.45 years) was not statistically significant (P=0.23), significant difference was observed between the means of the weight, height and BMI in both groups (p<0.05), the mean BMI of the overweight/obese and controls being 26.15 ± 4.31kg/m2 and 23.64 ± 2.14kg/m2 respectively. Although overweight/obesity occurred more among the participants below tertiary education (97; 51.05%) and employed (108; 56.84%), the association between these factors and overweight/obesity was not significant. Significant association was only found between being married (142; 74.74%) and overweight/obesity (p=0.045). Married individuals were also more likely to be obese as compared with the unmarried (OR1.887; 95% CI 1.218-2.925)
    Conclusion: Among the socio-demographic characteristics studied, only marital status was significantly associated with overweight/obesity.
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