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  • ISSN: 2379-0547
    Volume 4, Issue 8
    Research Article
    Jill Caines and Michael A. Ward*
    Objectives: Seniors aged 65 years or older represent 16% of the Canadian population, and this number is expected to rise to more than 28% by 2061. Little research has been conducted on elder abuse in emergency medicine in Canada. Given the vulnerability of the senior population and the nature of elder abuse, emergency departments are a likely presenting setting. The objective of this research was to examine the depth of knowledge and approach to elder abuse by emergency physicians.
    Methods: A structured survey was developed and distributed to 1,454 emergency physicians Canada-wide assessing knowledge and comfort level of management options.
    Results: We found that 78% of emergency department physicians detected or suspected a case(s) of elder abuse in their career; 45% in the past 6 months. Further, 77% of respondents did not feel they were aware of community services available for victims of elder abuse and their families. In terms of resources, 89% of respondents did not feel there were sufficient resources available for the elderly. In terms of training, 43% of respondents had not completed training on elder abuse and 83% of respondents felt their training in elder abuse was insufficient.
    Conclusion: Elder abuse is a relatively common presentation to the emergency department. With Canada’s increasing elderly population, elder abuse is likely to increase. This research suggests there is progress to be made in emergency medicine training, policies and protocols at the national, provincial and institutional levels. While much remains to be done, this research represents an important initial step in the analysis and addressing of this important public health problem.
    Daniel Cruz, Colby Genrich, Kristen Wesbecher, Ian LeSueur, Elena Thomopoulos
    Background and objectives: Residency is a time of incredible learning possibilities, but it also involves high levels of stress exposure. Recent national attention has been given to the demands associated with residency as well as the mental health of resident physicians. The overwhelming body of research however, has focused primarily on medical students and attending physicians and there is a paucity of research related to resident health. This study set out to analyze mental health symptoms associated with resident stress and the strength-based coping mechanisms employed by individual residents during their training.
    Methods: Seventy-two family medicine residents were surveyed in the current study. Residents completed standardized measures of personal wellness, hope, and mindfulness, as well as a single measure that assessed depression, anxiety and stress, via an on-line survey software system.
    Results: There were significant negative correlations between hope, mindfulness and wellness promotion strategies. SEM results indicated that Mindfulness (ß = -.34, 95%CI = -.57,-.05, P = .01) was the most significant and reliable predictor of psychological distress.
    Conclusions: Residency training programs must prioritize resident well-being. Reinforcing healthy behaviors that promote positive coping, self-care and resilience will benefit the physician which in turn, will help to preserve the essential qualities of good health care practice such as empathy and compassion, present time orientation and hope and faith when faced with adversity.
    Sandul Yasobant*, Deepak Saxena, Tapasvi Puwar, Poonam Trivedi, Sushil Patel, and Mayur Patel
    Introduction: Hepatitis B is the most important infectious occupational hazard which the healthcare workers encounter; which is two to four-times greater than that of general adult population. By knowing facts, having proper awareness and attitudes the menace of this disease can be prevented to a great extent. Knowledge and practices of healthcare providers play a key role in prevention of spread of infection; however, many health care providers are unable to recognize, access and manage hepatitis B from other forms of hepatitis. Therefore, the objectives of this study is to assess knowledge about hepatitis B and universal precautions practices of medical doctors working in public health system of Gujarat, India and to understand whether an intensive training program is effective in improving knowledge about hepatitis B or not!
    Methods: A prospective interventional study targeted to all the medical Doctors (n=112) working in Primary and Community Health Centres of Sabarkantha and Mehsana district, Gujarat, India. A structured questionnaire was administered in three points of time i.e. first at recruitment phase, secondly after the training and lastly after the refresher training. The knowledge score was compared across these three points and analyzed in SPSS version 23.0.
    Results: The knowledge score (Pre-Intervention: 8.4 ± 0.9; Post-Intervention Phase-I: 8.9 ± 0.5 and Post-Intervention Phase-II: 9.1 ± 0.5) was found to be significantly different in three points of time. Self-vaccination status was only 46.4%; whereas about 26.8% initiated the dose but failed to complete because of lack of time/ interest. About 85% uses gloves regularly and 82% wash their hands regularly as part of universal precautions. Training about hepatitis B found to be an essential intervention to improve the knowledge.
    Conclusion: This study suggests that training on hepatitis B has sway on the knowledge level among medical doctors working in public health system of Gujarat, India; yet there are poor practices observed regarding universal precautions. Therefore, it has been recommend that regular training and handholding activities on universal precautions are highly essential.
    David F. DeMase*
    Male latex condoms (MLCs) serve as prevention and reduce the transmission of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Limited access and availability, however, can lead to underutilization. To evaluate cost and the current purchase barriers in the commercial setting, I visited 62 national chain pharmacies (NCPs), 76 independent pharmacies (IPs), 58 grocery stores (GSs), and 146 convenience stores (CSs) throughout jurisdictions impacted by STIs. Additionally, since many recipients of governmental health insurance have access to condom coverage, I examined the condom coverage of 25 private health insurance companies (HICs). Overall, it was discovered that NCPs marketed MLCs at the highest cost, while IPs and GSs were similarly priced and marketed MLCs at the lowest price. The average cost of MLCs was lower in high poverty jurisdictions. Also, access to MLCs in various outlets was often impacted by restricted commercial settings. Finally, HICs commonly declared MLCs over-the-counter products. Some also claimed MLCs lack medical importance. For prevention and the benefit of society, an improvement in access to MLCs is in demand.
    Review Article
    Angela Schaffner*
    Clients with eating disorders commonly struggle with assertiveness and confidence, as well as identifying and meeting their own needs. In one martial arts therapy group conducted at an intensive treatment center for clients with eating disorders, positive client experiences were observed over the course of thirty months. The weekly, ninety-minute therapy group incorporated the use of movement, mindset, and metaphor in order to enhance and support recovery-oriented thoughts and behaviors. The current article reports subjective observation of clients in the group. Clients regularly reported an increased sense of connection to their bodies, and increased feelings of strength and empowerment. Follow-up outcome data is needed to further explore the potential benefits of the group.
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