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  • ISSN: 2379-0547
    Volume 5, Issue 3
    Research Article
    Wanda S. Gumbs, Brittany Payne, Robyn M. Davis, April A. Agne, and Andrea L. Cherrington*
    The Community Health Worker (CHW) model is increasingly implemented in diabetes management; little has been published about how health care professionals (HCP) view the role of CHWs in the healthcare team. The study's objective is to examine HCPs' perceptions of the CHW model. Nine semi-structured interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of HCPs at a community hospital in Birmingham, Alabama. A trained interviewer, using a written guide, conducted telephone interviews. Interviews were audio taped, transcribed, and then coded by two independent reviewers using an iterative consensus process. Participants identified CHW roles including liaison, educator and mentor. Concern was voiced about CHWs' ability to recognize limitations, provider time constraints, and lack of system resources and support. HCPs agreed that CHWs are assets to any healthcare team. However, most were unsure of how such an intervention could practically be implemented within resource-poor systems. Results suggest a need for the development of creative strategies to help vulnerable health systems.
    Aurora P. Jackson* and Jong-Kyun Choi
    Parenting stress can lead to negative, coercive, and harsh parenting and these can have a negative and direct effect on children's behavior. Using data from a subsample of unmarried black mothers and nonresident biological fathers with a focal 3-year-old child (N = 1,370) from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, we tested a model linking economic hardship and nonresident fathers' involvement in single mothers' family life during children's early childhood (age 3-5) to behavior problems in middle childhood (age 9) and early adolescence (age 15). We tested whether these associations differed by child gender. In general, results were consistent with our theoretical expectations, especially for boys. Economic hardship was linked indirectly to harsh parenting through mothers' depressive symptoms and parenting stress, both of which were related directly to harsh parenting. Fathers' involvement was associated directly with reduced economic hardship and reduced parenting stress for mothers at child's age 3 - 5, and reduced levels of harsh parenting at child's age 9, for mothers of boys, but only with reduced economic hardship for mothers of girls. Harsh parenting during middle childhood, in turn, was associated directly and positively with behavior problems for both genders at age 9. Problem behaviors at age 9 predicted adjustment problems at age 15. Implications of these findings for prevention and intervention efforts and future research are considered.
    Lula Girma and Tsega-Ab Abebaw*
    Background: Low birth weight (LBW) is a leading cause of neonatal mortality. In most developing countries, it was estimated that every ten seconds an infant die from a condition that can be attributed to LBW. Approximately, >80% of neonatal deaths occurring in Ethiopia are attributable to LBW. The aim of this study was to assess the level of LBW, maternal characteristics and the association between maternal characteristics and LBW delivery in Gandhi Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, in 2016.
    Methods: Hospital based cross-sectional study was conducted and systematic random sampling technique was applied. The total number of study subjects participated in the study was 411. Data was collected using an interviewer administered structured questionnaire and medical records of the mothers were reviewed. Bivariate and multi variable logistic regression analyses were employed to assess the outcome of different factors on LBW. A statistical significance was assumed when, P value <0.05 at 95%CI.
    Results: The prevalence of LBW was found to be 30.7%. The multivariable logistic regression showed that, odds of LBW delivery among mothers with previous history of still birth and LBW was about 4 (AOR=3.95, 95% CI: 1.37-11.34) and 12 (AOR=11.9, 95% CI: 5.52-25.67) times higher than those with no history respectively. Similarly, mothers who delivered a preterm baby and those who were anemic was about 6 (AOR=6.01, 95% CI: 3.08-11.73) and 14 (AOR=14.35, 95% CI: 5.47-37.66) times higher than their counterparts respectively.
    Conclusion: According to our study, LBW was found to be high when compared to other national and international studies and the determinant factors for LBW were maternal educational status, gravidity, gestational age, hemoglobin level and previous history of LBW and stillbirth.
    Carolyn Dunn*, Olusola Olabode-Dada, Lauren Whetstone, Cathy Thomas, Surabhi Aggarwal, Kelly Nordby, Samuel Thompson, and Madison Johnson
    More than one-third of the US adult population is obese. Mindful eating is a possible strategy for weight management. The purpose of the current study was to examine the effectiveness of Eat Smart, Move More, Weigh Less (ESMMWL) in increasing mindful eating as measured by the Mindful Eating Questionnaire (MEQ). The secondary objective was to investigate the relationship between mindful eating and weight loss. Participants were part of a randomized controlled trial that evaluated the effectiveness of ESMMWL, a real-time online, 15-week weight management program. A total of 80 state employees and teachers in North Carolina (intervention group = 42, wait-list control group = 38) participated in the study. The primary outcome was mindful eating as measured by the MEQ, a 28-item questionnaire that assesses five domains of mindful eating. All analyses were performed using SPSS software. Independent samples t-tests and X2 tests were used to compare baseline measures for intervention and waitlist control groups. Analyses of covariance with baseline measure as covariates were conducted to compare change in mindfulness scores between the two groups. Mean mindfulness scores were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA with Greenhouse-Geisser correction for violations of sphericity. The relationship between weight loss and mindfulness was analyzed with Pearson correlations. Results indicated that ESMMWL participants lost more weight than participants in the waitlist control group. For all subscales and the summary score, participants who completed ESMMWL had a significantly larger increase in their mindfulness scores than those in the waitlist control group. Study results suggest that there is a beneficial association between mindful eating and weight loss. This study contributes to the mindfulness literature as few studies have employed rigorous methodology to examine the effectiveness of an intervention on mindful eating.
    Ojo OS*, Sogunle PT, Malomo SO, and Adeyemo AJ
    Background: BPM is a clinical procedure that is performed regularly by doctors and nurses. Adequate knowledge of BPM is a prerequisite for accurate BPM. There is a paucity of local studies that assess the knowledge of BPM among doctors and nurses. The aim of the study was to determine the knowledge of nurses and doctors on the basic principle of BPM as well as to determine the relationship between their knowledge of BPM and sociodemographic characteristics.
    Methods: It was a descriptive cross-sectional study.Convenience sampling was used in selecting 211 respondents (82 doctors and 129 nurses) from various specialties between January and April 2017. Data were collected using a pretested questionnaire which contained 23 questions regarding knowledge about BPM skills based on American Heart Association guidelines. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21.0 was used to analyze data.
    Results: Majority of the participants were females [n=127(60.2%)]. One hundred and fifty (71.1%) had not read the guidelines on BPM since graduation. A large proportion of the respondents had poor knowledge of BPM [n=155(73.5%)], and this was more pronounced among the nurses [n=115(74.2%)]. The knowledge of BPM was significantly associated with gender (?2=32.15, p<0.001) and profession (?2=42.17, p<0.001).
    Conclusions: The knowledge of BPM among doctors and nurses is suboptimal in our practice setting. The poor knowledge spans across patients' preparation, BPM technique, cuff selection and patients' position. These deficiencies highlight the need for regular training and certification of health workers in BPM.
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