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  • ISSN: 2379-0547
    Volume 5, Issue 5
    Research Article
    Noor Fatima, Nimra Shahid, Ramisha Afzal, Chaudhry Saad Sohail*, Rimsha Khan, Rabia Razzaq, Muhammad Nawal, Hamza Naveed, Arshia Akbar, Saif-ur-Rehman, Anum Jamal, Ali Nauman Khan, Ata Ul Haiy, Nida Jamil, Khawaja Hassan Akhtar, and Ahmad Toheed
    Although hermaphroditism is a well-known phenomenon, this population remains deprived of their fundamental rights and face ridicule and discrimination in almost all walks of life. The structural, interpersonal and individual stigma they face leads to stress, anxiety, and depression among other health conditions. The aim was to gauge the perceptions of and attitudes towards hermaphrodites amongst the medical students. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in Allama Iqbal Medical College Lahore (AIMC), Pakistan. The study lasted for one month and three days (24th April-27th May, 2017). We conducted a non-probability purposive sampling survey on 300 Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) students of AIMC, choosing 60 students from each year via convenient sampling. We entered the data into SPSS version 17.0 and analyzed the data through the same program. It was found that 83.7% of the participants were fully aware of the term ‘Hermaphrodite’ and a large percentage (93.7%) expressed that the work needed to be done for their welfare. When asked whether they would be comfortable while working with them as colleagues, 45.3% responded in affirmative. However, only 18% of the respondents responded that they had actually worked for the welfare of the hermaphrodites. Through our research, we aimed to detect the willingness to work for hermaphrodite welfare in the population to which majority of the study population answered in affirmative but admitted to never having actually worked on any welfare projects. The results also show that people do believe hermaphrodites are vulnerable to sexual assault and agreed that they are deprived of their rights in the basic fields like health care and education.
    Dennis Tsilimingras, Wanda Gibson-Scipio, Ramona Benkert, Leon Hudson, Xuefeng Liu, Liying Zhang, Thomas Reed, and Tsveti Markova
    Purpose: The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of the Michigan State Loan Repayment Program (MSLRP) in retaining providers from different disciplines in underserved communities.
    Methods: This is a descriptive study that surveyed healthcare providers that participated in the Michigan State Loan Repayment Program from July of 2014 to December of 2016 in underserved communities in the State of Michigan. Participating providers received a total of three surveys over a 3-year period. Survey questions were collected from July of 2014 to December of 2016 and entered into Survey Monkey, an internet based survey program. Providers were sent four reminders via email and one direct mail reminder to their home to complete the surveys.
    Results: For the first two-years of the study, up to 22 of 30 (73%) providers responded to our surveys who were primarily physicians. The majority of the providers were male (71%) and raised in a small town or rural community (71%). The primarily reasons for a provider’s participation in the program were the need for financial assistance (95.2%) and the urge to provide care to underserved populations (90.5%). The majority of the providers (60%) that responded in the last year of the survey indicated that they intent to remain practicing in Michigan for greater than 10 years.
    Conclusions: We anticipate that the findings from this study will not only improve the recruitment process in Michigan but in other states as well in identifying providers that are likely to complete the program and remain in rural and underserved communities. The findings may also assist the Area Health Education Center in improving its process for providing continuing education opportunities for providers serving these communities.
    Mensur Shafie*, Kedija Muzeyin, Yosief Tsige, Yimer Seid, and Abdulwahhab Seid
    Background: Health care workers (HCW) are at increased risk of acquiring hepatitis B (HB) virus infection due to occupational exposure. A range of measures and interventions can contribute to reduce HB virus transmission to HCWs to low levels. There is effective and safe vaccine against the virus throughout the world. However, many HCWs especially in resource poor countries remain at risk because they are not knowledgeable about HB vaccine.
    Objective: To assess the level of knowledge about HB vaccine and associated factors among professional Nurses at governmental hospital in Addis Ababa.
    Methods: Facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted among nurses working in public hospitals in Addis Ababa from March to April 2015. The study population was selected among public hospital nurses of Addis Ababa. A total of 272 nurses were included in the study. Data was collected by using self-administered questionnaire. Both bivariate and multivariate logistic regression techniques were used to analyze the data using statistical package for social science, version 20. P-value = 0.05 was used for statistical significance.
    Paolo Lauriola*, Samantha Pegoraro, Alice Serafini, Vitalia Murgia, Agostino Di Ciaula, Francesco De Tommasi, Alice Rossci, Mariagrazia Santamaria, Giacomo Toffol, Fabrizio Bianchi, Roberto Romizi, Emanuele Vinci, Behrooz Behbod, Ariana Zeka, Robert Verheij, Giovanni Leonardi, Raymond Agius
    Health effects due to the environment are among the most challenging concerns faced by our future. In particular global climate changes. However, the connection between the environment and human health as part of clinician’s activities is rather undeveloped. We performed a literature review, finding that many Sentinel Physician Networks have been developed, but very few have dealt with environmental health issues, and almost none have considered the opportunities of targeting Family Doctors (FDs). Beginning with the Italian context, we are committed to developing a structured system, named RIMSA – Rete Italiana Medici Sentinella per l’Ambiente – (Sentinel Physicians for the Environment) as a pilot experience. Moreover, we would like to share our experience to raise interest of this model internationally. The aim is to monitor the effects of critical environmental public health issues, help raise awareness of environmental health risks among doctors, patients, and the general public, and learn how to report sentinel diagnoses or critical situations. We believe FDs can play an important role in connecting global concerns with local actions. The project has already made significant strides; three 2-day courses have been staged, training 61 FDs from across Italy; a website, a Moodle platform and an online survey have been implemented and the Sentinel Physicians for the Environment (SPE) Manual is currently being compiled. Other actions have been planned to consolidate and develop the project; the training process should be sustained and disseminated and a standard plan for reporting an environmental health concern is underway. This will represent the foundation for setting up the overall SPE network in Italy and possibly in connection with other Sentinel Practitioners Networks in Europe and globally.
    Pilot Study
    Kiran Dung Dung and BK Pattanaik*
    The traditional knowledge system particularly with regard to the health care is quite popular among the tribal living in the far-flung-areas and also in the deep forests and hilly areas devoid of modern system of medicine and health care. The study was conducted in one of the tribal districts of Odisha, India. The objectives of the study are to: (i) find out the ethno-cultural food habits and nutritional practices among the tribal; (ii) evaluate the impact of ethno-cultural health care practices on the health of the tribal and its impact on maternal and infant mortality; and (iii) find out the reasons for using the ethno-cultural health practices by the tribal. The study is based on the primary data collected from the eligible couple particularly women on their socio-economic status, illness, and the treatment of various illness and also traditional healthcare practices followed during maternal and child health care. The study is based on primary data collected from the field area with a structured interview schedule. The study found that various cultural practices are vastly used in the treatment of diseases and health care of mother and children. The traditional healers and Vaidyas (local non-qualified health practitioners) play an important role in health management and treatment of various common illness and diseases. The primary reason is that they are situated at the doorstep, accessible and provide health care services with low fee. The lack of modern health care practices in the tribal areas and impoverishment of the people to pay for medicines and other charges are also reasons for attraction of tribal towards the traditional health care practices. It is found that the socio-economic status of the tribal community i.e higher the socio-economic status lower is the attraction towards traditional health care practices and vice versa. The lack of referral health care services and modern health care facilities and treatment has resulted into higher infant and maternal mortality rate among the tribal.
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