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  • ISSN: 2379-0547
    Volume 7, Issue 2
    Research Article
    Roland Wörz*
    The recognition of pain not only as a symptom or an epiphenomenon but a problem in its own right [1,2] lead to the founding of the International Association for the Study of Pain [IASP] in 1973. Since that time, the multifaceted aspects of pain, the etiopathogenesis, assessment, treatment, and prevention have been studied in a systematic manner. Acute, recurrent, and chronic pain states were recognized as universal problems.
    Abdulla Salem Bin Ghouth* and Ali Ahmed Al-Waleedy
    Background: As COVID19 pandemic is an emerging global problem, there is a gap in the knowledge regarding epidemiological and clinical spectrum of the diseases in Yemen. The importance of this study is to describe the clinical presentation of COVID 19 from the surveillance data that means clinical description of patients at the time of identification and measure the outcomes from epidemiological perspective.
    Methodology: This is a retrospective analysis of the available surveillance data form 10th April to 31st May 2020; it include data of 419 confirmed COVID19 cases
    Results: A total of 419 confirmed COVID19 cases out of 979 suspected cases (42.8%) were reported. The most common symptoms reported were fever (91.4%), cough (85.2%), difficulty of breathing (60.6%), sore throat (59.9%) and muscle and joint pain (49.4%). A total of 59 cases out of 419 patients (14.1%) were admitted to intensive care units (ICU) and 25 patients (6%) were treated under respiratory ventilators. Only 6.2% of patients have cardiovascular diseases, 7.9% have hypertension, 5.3% have chronic lung diseases but 11% of patients have diabetes mellitus (DM). The high burden of cardiovascular diseases, hypertension and DM were among COVID 19 old patients (60+ years of age) as 11.5%, 16.3% and 14.5% respectively. The highest rate of admission to ICU were among elder patients (16.3%) followed by the age group of 30-44 years (14.8%) and age group 45-59 years (12.2%). The treatment rate under ventilator was higher among elder patients (8.6%) followed by age group of 45-59 years (6.5%) and age group of 30-44 years (4%).
    A total of 95 patients died giving the case fatality rate (CFR%) to 22.7%. The high age specific death rate were among elder patients (31.7%) followed by age group of 45-59 years (28%) and age group of 30-44 years (14.8%).
    Conclusions: The most common symptoms are consistent with what were reported in the international literature. Cardiovascular diseases, hypertension and DM are the most chronic diseases associated with COVID19 especially among elder patients, highest rate of admission to ICU were among COVID19 elder patients who be at high risk to death.
    Khansa Zahroosita Fatikasari*, Triyanti, and Ahmad Syafiq
    This study aims to determine the prevalence and the association of consumption of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages (SSBs) with several factors and determine the dominant factor in students of SMAN 25 Jakarta. The factors studied were the influence of exposure to social media, the frequency of online food ordering, consumption of fast food, knowledge of SSBs, screen time, peer influence, allowance, and gender. This research is a quantitative study with cross-sectional design. Data collection was carried out in April 2020 to 226 students of grades 10, 11, and 12 of SMAN 25 Jakarta who were chosen non-randomly using incidental sampling. Data is collected through filling out online questionnaires. The data obtained were then analyzed univariately, bivariately using chi-square, and multivariate with multiple logistic regression tests. The results showed that as many as 75.2% of respondents had a high level of consumption that consumed SSBs = 3 times per week. The results also showed that the influence of social media exposure, fast food consumption, and screen time were related to SSB consumption in adolescents. Multivariate analysis shows the influence of social media exposure as the dominant factor associated with SSB consumption in adolescents.
    Brittany Colonna*, Lara Goorland, Robin King, Gabriel C. Gaviola, Paldeep Atwal, and Douglas Elwood
    Introduction: The outbreak of the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in the United States has had a significant impact on the healthcare industry. Physicians working directly with COVID-19 hospitalizations have been busy, but the experience of other physicians is unclear. This study investigates pandemic effects on telehealth physicians. 
    Methods: A cohort of physicians within a leading national telehealth organization was surveyed to provide insights into changes in employment status, personal income, and general outlook on this model of care. 
    Results: In total, 35 (67%) of 52 physicians completed an assessment tool. Over half of participants (51%) reported experiencing layoffs, furloughs, cuts in pay/hours, or other negative effects in their primary role. While individual motivators differed, these changes prompted many physicians to initiate or expand telehealth focus. Nearly all respondents (94%) reported being satisfied with telehealth work. Physicians felt that the income, flexibility, safety, and other advantages of remote work were favorable and reported interest in continuing telehealth practice post-COVID-19. 
    Conclusion: Physicians are satisfied with the advantages of telehealth work. Increased adoption of telehealth may have broader implications on policy, practice, and national crisis response mechanisms.
    Mini Review
    Abdullah S. Alghamdi*, Abdulaziz Alqadi, Richard O. Jenkins and Parvez I. Haris
    Intermittent fasting has been reported to be beneficial for individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), which is being developed as a non-pharmacological therapy for management of T2DM. The impact of Ramadan fasting, a type of intermittent fasting, in the management of diabetes has not been well investigated. This mini-review discus the potential of the month of Ramadan as a non-pharmacological strategy for preventing, managing, and reversing type 2 diabetes. In conclusion, it can be suggested that fasting during the month of Ramadan can be used as a vehicle for preventing, managing, and reversing different disease, including diabetes and prediabetes.
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