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  • ISSN: 2573-1033
    Early Online
    Volume 3, Issue 1
    Research Article
    Irokanulo Emenike Onyebum*, Charles Obiora Nwonuma, Kogoro Miracle Efe, and Iyilade Joy Iyanuoluwa
    Keeping food longer and safe in its natural state for human consumption is important to avoid disease, waste and scarcity. The preservation potentials of methanolic extracts of the mushrooms Shiitake (Lentinula edodes), Pleurotus sajor-caju and aqueous extract of duck (Anas platyrhyncha) egg shell membranes was examined for meat inoculated with three species of bacteria; Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Salmonella typhi (ATCC 20971), and Salmonella enterica (ATCC 14028). Buffered saline wash from the meat inoculated with the bacteria species and treated with the extracts were evaluated for microbial load (Log) reduction. All three extracts significantly (p< 0.05) reduced the counts of the three-bacteria species used to inoculate the meat. When compared with the mean log count (5.6) obtained for the control, a mean log reduction difference of 2.6, 3.2 and 3.3 for the bacteria Salmonella typhi, was recorded from the wash of all three extracts; Anas platyrhyncha egg shell membrane, Pleurotus sajor-caju and Lentinula edodes (Shiitake) respectively after 24 hours of treatment. A similar trend followed in the results from the meats inoculated with Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli and treated with the three extracts. Our findings show that these organic products have promising potentials for preserving meat from bacterial contamination.
    Felipe A. Serafim, Thiago Ohe, Laura Agostinacchio, Silmara F. Buchviser, Sauro Vittori, and Fernando M. Lanças*
    Twenty-one samples of grape marc spirits, fifteen from Italy (Grappa) and six from Brazil (Graspa) were analyzed to verify the content of 28 chemical compounds by GC-MS and GC-FID in order to evaluate their differences. The analytical data obtained were subjected to Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA). ANOVA results showed that diethyl succinate, methanol, propanol and isoamyl alcohol presented different significance at 95%. The PCA and HCA treatment led to a discrimination of the two groups of grape marc spirits based upon the chemical differences found between their distillates. Although both distillates were obtained from the same raw material, the chemical description of each distillate allowed the traceability of their geographic identity.
    John T. Willey, Chase Jutzi and Elizabeth Tomasino*
    Honey wine, also known as mead is made from honey, water and yeast. This beverage has experienced resurgence in popularity but to be competitive producers must consistently produce high quality products. This study focused on the effect of three fermentation temperatures and four different nutrient addition schedules on mead quality and fermentation parameters. Basic mead chemistry parameters were measured. Aroma composition was determined using HS-SPME-GCMS and descriptive analysis was used to determine the sensory differences of the meads. Significant differences were found for treatments receiving nutrients versus those receiving no nutrients. Aroma composition showed significant differences based on fermentation temperature and nutrient schedule. In particular, the coolest fermentation temperature resulted in meads with greater amounts of esters. However, despite the fact that a significant difference in aroma composition was found these do not result in any large sensory differences, particularly for those ferments with nutrient additions. Only the control was significantly different from the other treatments based on sensory data, although certain trends were found based on fermentation temperature and nutrient addition schedule. These results show that mead makers can use nutrient schedules and fermentation temperature to not only significantly reduce time-to-market but also to potentially achieve sensory goals. Additional work is required to determine whether nutrient blends tailored to particular implementations can be applied using commonly-accepted nutrient schedules.
    Alfonso de Jesus Torres-Osorno, Francisco Javier Lopez-Mendoza, and Gustavo A. de la Riva*
    Probiotics are living microorganism intended to confer health benefits to the host organism. Some of them produce and retain group of metabolites helping the good conditions of organism, some of the effects of probiotics are mediated by metabolites that promote good health by improving the host´s immune response and antioxidant capacity. β-glucans are glucose-polymer present in yeast, fungi, and plants that can stimulate cellular immunological response and reduce oxidative stress damages in both, vertebrate and invertebrate species. In this study, we isolated and characterized wild yeast strains from different regions of Mexico. About 250 different isolates were obtained from fermented fruit extracts, of which 44 were selected and further characterized microbiologically, biochemically and molecularly. Restriction fragment length polymorphism of PCR-amplified internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region revealed a wide diversity among selected isolates, and this was confirmed by DNA sequencing. Biochemically, diversity was supported by a wide range of β-glucans levels produced under laboratory conditions. Two identified species, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Debaryomyces hansenii show the most promising β-glucans profiles and were subjected to a kinetic study over 24 hours. The highest β-glucans levels were obtained in stationary phase of growth. Both strains were evaluated as a probiotic. Evaluation as probiotics in mice under environmental stress conditions showed that animals receiving yeast strain as a dietary supplement regained weight more rapidly and had better liver, renal and immunological functions compared to a control group fed with a normal diet. β-glucans also proved to be effective in reducing oxidative stress damage and protecting renal, hepatic and immunological functions in support of systemic positive effect.
    Monica Butnariu*
    All foods degrade over time longer or shorter than the date of manufacture or preparation, losing its initial characteristics, thus becoming, unfit for consumption and even dangerous for human health and life. Depending on the degradation time, foods are classified into: perishable foods that degrade in a few days, such as: fresh milk, meat, mayonnaise, lettuce, fresh cow cheese, etc.; and non–persistent foods that degrade over a longer period of time, such as: pasta, dried vegetables, sterilized foods, food fats, etc. The degradation of food can have different consequences on their qualitative and nutritional qualities, as well as on the health of consumers, distinguishing the following situations: food aging, a process whereby foods can lose some of their nutritional value and sensory characteristics that they have fresh; altering food, a process by which food gets abnormal appearance and smell, which makes them no longer edible, and also becomes dangerous to human health; food contamination, a process caused by external agents such as bacteria, molds, causing food to become dangerous to human health, causing food poisoning that can culminate in the death of the individual. To this is added a series of parasites, pesticides, technological toxins, environmental pollutants, etc. Unlike other products, foods are more important to consumers. Besides providing daily nutrition needs, if they are contaminated or altered, they directly affect our health and can even endanger our lives. Organizational and technical measures are required to prevent harmful actions and undesirable changes in food products. The preservation of prescribed quality must be ensured for food products, from producer to consume such as by packaging, handling, transport, storage, exposure for sale.
    Mini Review
    Jose Luis Platero, Maria Mar Lopez-Rodriguez, Pilar Garcia-Pardo, and Jose Enrique de la Rubia Orti*
    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an immune-mediated neurodegenerative disease that results from progressive demyelination of axons. Currently the disease has no pharmacological cure. The immune-mediated neurogenic derangements result in inflammation resulting in neuronal death. This paper seeks to make use of findings from animal based work to demonstrate that to attenuate this neuronal death, an energetic alternative for neurons are the ketone bodies. In this line, the hepatic metabolism of coconut oil results in the production of a large amount of ketone bodies that are obtained from the hepatic metabolism of medium chain triglycerides, in which coconut oil is very rich. These ketone bodies are neuroprotective and have anti-inflammatory activity, being able to be an adequate source of energy of damaged neurons. Therefore, ketone bodies are able to impact in the progression of MS. In conclusion, it can be hypothesized that the oral administration of extra virgin coconut oil attenuates the progression of MS thus providing an alternative therapy for the disease.
    Research Article
    Okoronkwo Christopher Uche*
    Maize (zea-mays) and pigeon pea (cajanus cajan) were processed into flour samples by adopting a locally available methods called malting or germination. The flour samples were formulated into raw samples (RMF), (RPPF), germinated samples (GMF), (GPPF) and composite flour of the maize and pigeon pea D (75% GMF vs 25%GPPF), E (50%GMF vs 50%GPPF) and F (25% GMF vs 75% GPPF) respectively. Proximate composition, anti-nutritional /phytochemical composition and organoleptic properties of the flour samples were evaluated using standard analytical methods. Raw flour samples of the maize, pigeon pea and NUTREND (A commercial complementary food) were evaluated alongside with other samples to serve as CONTROL. Proximate composition of the samples recorded the highest protein content in the germinated pigeon pea flour (21.84%) and the lowest in the raw maize flour (6.32%). The range of Ether (5.28% - 8.25%), Ash (1.49-4.10%), Crude fibre (3.08% - 6.55%), Moisture (1.40-4.10%) and Nitrogen free extract (57.75%-79.87%) respectively. Anti-nutritional/ phytochemical composition evaluated were Oxalate (131.63-274.45)mg/100g, Saponin (1.37%-7.85%), Alkaloid (2.10%-4.30%), Cyanogenic glycoside (0.16-0.34%)mg/100g and phytate (0.31-0.69)g/100g respectively. Anti-nutritional factors were reduced due to the germination of the maize and pigeon pea seeds. Sensory scores revealed that samples E, D, F, RMF, RPPF were equally accepted. Samples formulated with 50% germinated pigeon pea scored higher than NUTREND (a commercial weaning food formulation). The study established that samples D and F can be recommended for complementary feeding.
    Akinjayeju O*, Eke A, and Akinpelu AA
    This study aimed at investigating the influence of varying proportions of wheat, pigeon pea and cassava cortex flours on proximate composition, anti-nutritional, functional and pasting properties and mineral profiles of their blends as potential ingredients for snack production. Blends were optimized for protein (10-20%) and fibre (3-5%), using Design Expert Version 6.0.8. and variables wheat flour (55-65%), pigeon-pea flour (16-25%) and cassava-cortex flour (11-20%). Blends generated were evaluated for protein and crude fibre contents and three blends with highest protein and fibre contents were evaluated for proximate and anti-nutrition compositions, functional and pasting properties and phytate/oxalate-mineral molar ratios and mineral profiles including mineral safety index of selected minerals. Protein and fibre contents of blends increased as proportions of pigeon pea and cassava cortex increased, with sample WPC-1 having highest protein content (16.30%) and sample WPC-3 having the highest fibre content (4.05%). Samples with higher proportion of pigeon pea flour (WPC-1 and WPC-3) had significantly (p<0.05) higher water and oil absorption and breakdown viscosities, significantly (p<0.05) lower swelling and water solubility and setback viscosities. There was significant difference (p<0.05) among samples for Oxa:Ca, and between Phy:Zn and [Ca]:[Phy]/[Zn] molar ratios, between which there was also strong positive correlation (r = 0.99), but no significant difference for Phy:Zn, while values for both parameters and phytate and oxalate contents for all samples were within safe thresholds. There was significant (p<0.05) differences between the mean calculated and standard MSI values for all the minerals, except Na, while sample WPC-3 had the highest calculated MSI values for all minerals measured. Varying proportions of wheat, pigeon pea and cassava cortex flours had significant (p<0.05) effects on proximate composition, physico-chemical properties and mineral profiles of their blends.
    Mini review
    Tatiana Sukhomlin*
    Abnormal fibrosis is the main cause of severe course and mortality induced by SARS-CoV-2 infection. The abnormality is reflected in the contradictory coexistence of fibrinolysis shutdown and elevated D-dimer levels, which is a marker of hyperfibrinolysis. This paradox may be resolved when coagulation is considered in concert with iron homeostasis. Cytokine storm induced by COVID infection is accompanied by oxidative stress followed by massive erythrocyte destruction and, therefore, it could result in insufficient control of local iron in injured lungs. Given that free ferric iron stabilizes fibrin clots, then interventions aimed to decrease free iron availability in lung tissues might prevent the severe course of ARDS or recover the damaged organ. To date, a cross-talk between local iron homeostasis and coagulation is underestimated. At the same time, research in this direction may provide us both with markers to discriminate the people susceptible to ARDS and to discover a new strategy to treat SARS-CoV-2 related ARDS.
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