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  • ISSN: 2573-1033
    Early Online
    Volume 3, Issue 1
    Research Article
    Irokanulo Emenike Onyebum*, Charles Obiora Nwonuma, Kogoro Miracle Efe, and Iyilade Joy Iyanuoluwa
    Keeping food longer and safe in its natural state for human consumption is important to avoid disease, waste and scarcity. The preservation potentials of methanolic extracts of the mushrooms Shiitake (Lentinula edodes), Pleurotus sajor-caju and aqueous extract of duck (Anas platyrhyncha) egg shell membranes was examined for meat inoculated with three species of bacteria; Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Salmonella typhi (ATCC 20971), and Salmonella enterica (ATCC 14028). Buffered saline wash from the meat inoculated with the bacteria species and treated with the extracts were evaluated for microbial load (Log) reduction. All three extracts significantly (p< 0.05) reduced the counts of the three-bacteria species used to inoculate the meat. When compared with the mean log count (5.6) obtained for the control, a mean log reduction difference of 2.6, 3.2 and 3.3 for the bacteria Salmonella typhi, was recorded from the wash of all three extracts; Anas platyrhyncha egg shell membrane, Pleurotus sajor-caju and Lentinula edodes (Shiitake) respectively after 24 hours of treatment. A similar trend followed in the results from the meats inoculated with Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli and treated with the three extracts. Our findings show that these organic products have promising potentials for preserving meat from bacterial contamination.
    Felipe A. Serafim, Thiago Ohe, Laura Agostinacchio, Silmara F. Buchviser, Sauro Vittori, and Fernando M. Lanças*
    Twenty-one samples of grape marc spirits, fifteen from Italy (Grappa) and six from Brazil (Graspa) were analyzed to verify the content of 28 chemical compounds by GC-MS and GC-FID in order to evaluate their differences. The analytical data obtained were subjected to Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA). ANOVA results showed that diethyl succinate, methanol, propanol and isoamyl alcohol presented different significance at 95%. The PCA and HCA treatment led to a discrimination of the two groups of grape marc spirits based upon the chemical differences found between their distillates. Although both distillates were obtained from the same raw material, the chemical description of each distillate allowed the traceability of their geographic identity.
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