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  • ISSN: 2641-7790
    Early Online
    Volume 2, Issue 1
    Clinical Image
    Tiago S. Vieira*, Diogo B. Faria, Fernando A. Silva, Sergio Barroso, Graca Fonseca, and Jose Oliveira
    The use of Ga-68-PSMA PET is beneficial for patients with biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy [1], and a delayed-time-point acquisition protocol can improve the capacity of this molecular imaging modality to detect prostate cancer metastases [2].
    Alexandra L. Tabakin, Evita T. Sadimin, Irina Tereshchenko, AparnaKareddula, Mark N. Stein, Tina Mayer, Kim M. Hirshfield, Isaac Y. Kim, Jay Tischfield, Robert S. DiPaola, and Eric A. Singer*
    Introduction: CHD1 has been identified as a tumor suppressor gene in prostate cancer. Previous studies have shown strong associations between CHD1 deletion, prostate specific antigen [PSA] recurrence, and absence of ERG fusion. In this preliminary study we seek to find whether there is an independent correlation between CHD1 status and response to androgen deprivation therapy [ADT].
    Materials and methods: We identified 11 patients with prostate cancer who underwent prostatectomy and received at least 7 months of ADT at our institution. They were divided into undetectable [PSA < 0.2 ng/mL; n=8] and detectable [PSA > 0.2 ng/mL to 4.0 ng/mL; n=3] according to their serum PSA nadir after 7 months of ADT. Tissue microarray was generated from their formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded prostatectomy and involved lymph node tissues. Fluorescence in situ hybridization [FISH] analysis for CHD1 and immunohistochemical stains for PSA, AR, PTEN, ERG and SPINK1 were performed.
    Results: Our results showed heterogeneity of FISH and immunostains expressions in different foci of tumor. Status of CHD1, ERG, PTEN, or SPINK1 did not correlate with one another or with response to ADT. Conclusions: Additional larger studies may be needed to further elucidate trends between these biomarkers and clinical outcomes in prostate cancer patients.
    Short Review
    Suleiman Ghunaim and Ghina Ghazeeri*
    Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is a common reproductive/gynecologic medical entity which often leads to an ovulatory state that could potentially lead to infertility. It is defined by the presence of two of the three following criteria: hyperandrogenism, ovulatory dysfunction, and polycystic ovaries. The majority of women with this condition are obese and have a higher prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance as well as insulin resistance which supports the fact that PCOS has a major role in the development of diabetes. Moreover, PCOS patients are at a higher risk of adverse cardiovascular outcomes, including a higher incidence of future development of hypertension, and dyslipidemia, early onset endothelial dysfunction, arterial stiffness, and formation of plaques which might compromise the integrity of the coronary arteries and potentially increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. It is imperative that gynecologists have a good understanding of the long term implications PCOS carry upon diagnosis and thus be able to provide a more general and complete clinical picture about the disease and aid in proper patient counseling.
    Review Article
    Mohammad Reza Naghii*
    Nephrolithiasis is a highly prevalent disease worldwide with a high level of acute and chronic morbidity. First-line treatment is typically analgesia with non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs until the stone passes; otherwise urological intervention may be necessary. Certain medications such as alpha blockers and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, corticosteroids, or anti-spasmodics are sometimes used to create passage of stones in order to avoid further urologic intervention or hospitalization. However, the study results have limited their use and meanwhile major adverse events defined as orthostatic hypotension, collapse, syncope, palpitations, or tachycardia have been reported. At the present global circumstances, the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic (COVID-19) has caused widespread disruption of routine surgical care and forced every surgeon to make triage decisions requiring greater ethical and community health consideration. It is necessary to balance the surgical risks and benefits and the medical risks of any perceived delay in treatment, and potential exposure of health care workers and/or patients to the deadly virus.
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