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  • ISSN: 2378-9409
    Volume 1, Issue 3
    Research Article
    Doris YP Leung*, Twiggy T. Chow, Eliza ML Wong, Diana TF Lee, and Carmen MS Leung
    Abstract: Effective communication in health information plays an important role in facilitating decision-making including cancer screening. Cancer-related information acquisition can happen via active and purposeful seeking, but may also happen less purposively via routine use of media and interactions with other people (called scanning). We examined seeking and scanning behaviours regarding screening for colorectal cancer (CRC) in older Chinese adults in Hong Kong, and identify commonly used sources of information of such behaviours. A convenience sample of 260 community-dwelling adults aged = 60 and cognitively intact were recruited between May and July in 2013 in Hong Kong. Respondents were asked to report their levels of information seeking and scanning behaviours of the three cancer screening behaviours in the past 12 months via six sources: healthcare professional; family/friends/coworkers; television/radio; newspaper/magazines/newsletters; the Internet; and other sources. Many respondents reported both seeking and scanning behaviours, with more reporting scanning, for the CRC screening tests (scanning: 43.8%, seeking: 8.8%). Healthcare professional was the most popular source for both scanning (50.9%) and seeking (65.2%) behaviours of the screening tests. These findings may provide important information to the planning of colorectal cancer screening strategies in older adults in Hong Kong.
    Review Article
    Antonio Camerota1, Daniela Mastroiacovo1, Raffaella Bocale2 and Giovambattista Desideri1*
    Abstract: Gout is the most common inflammatory arthritis in the elderly population. The incidence and prevalence of gout in the elderly is increasing. Apart from its high frequency, gout is associated with disability, poor quality of life and increased mortality and therefore represents an ever increasing public health concern. Furthermore, substantial experimental and epidemiological evidence exists supporting the link between elevated levels of serum uric acid and several comorbidities including cardiovascular and kidney diseases. The cornerstone of effective gout management is the long-term lowering of serum urate below saturation concentrations (<6 mg/dL or <360 µmol/L) in order to promote crystal dissolution and prevent monosodium urate crystal formation. It is of great interest whether urate lowering strategies can also lower cardiovascular risk and some preliminary studies in both animal and human subjects suggest that they might. The management of gout includes not only pharmacological approaches, but also a number of non-pharmacological interventions aiming at lessening attack risk, lowering uric acid levels and promoting general health while preventing the development of comorbidities. The two xanthine oxidase inhibitors currently available are effective as long-term urate lowering therapy although the greater efficacy and high tolerability of febuxostat as a urate lowering agent has to be adequately considered especially when the reduction of serum uric acid levels to achieve the target is particularly ambitious and/or the presence of comorbidities increases the risk of adverse effects. Associated comorbidities and cardiovascular risk factors should also be addressed as an important part of the management of gout..
    Case Report
    Giulia-Anna Perri1*, Houman Khosravani2 and Michael Gordon3*
    Abstract: Dementia is a progressive condition and in contrast to other chronic illnesses, the terminal phase can be prolonged and difficult to recognize making palliative care elusive and often inadequate. The Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (BPSD) are common and can progress over time adding to an increased symptom burden at the end of life. Both non-pharmacological and pharmacological management options are the cornerstone of therapy along the continuum of progressive symptoms of BPSD. When the latter fails to achieve the desired goals of care, consenting to using medications at the end of life involves understanding and appreciating both risks and alternatives on the part of the Substitute Decision Maker (SDM). Why certain SDMs choose not to use medications at the end of life with increasing burden from BPSD, is challenging and complex. Being able to identify and understand the SDM’s specific relationship with the patient for whom they are the representative, and working through their anticipated grieving under the framework of total symptom burden, goals of care and prognosis may aid in the bridge of aligning decision making at the end of life.
    Karen PY Liu1*, Kin-hung Ting2, Michael CC Kuo3 and Chetwyn CH Chan2
    Abstract: Previous literature shows that the elderly people are able to take the advantage using semantic memory encoding to aid with their memory retrieval. However, people with mild cognitive impairment may not seem to take such benefit. This case report therefore sought to take an overview of the memory encoding processes in MCI. Two cases participated in an experimental paradigm involving encoding tasks by studying a list of words using perceptual and semantic memory encoding strategies and then making studied or unstudied judgment in the recognition phase. Results showed that they performed better using the perceptual encoding strategy. The process of memory encoding as shown by the event-related potentials data did not show consistent findings on whether they engaged in semantic processing under the semantic encoding condition. This case study gave the insights on the benefits using perceptual and semantic memory encoding strategies in people with mild cognitive impairment. Further study with more participants with MCI would be necessary.
    Mini Review
    Vladyslav Povoroznyuk*, Nataliia Dzerovych and Roksolana Povoroznyuk
    Abstract: Our mini-review presents the data on epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnostics and management of sarcopenia. The Ukrainian study is aimed at evaluating the body composition and frequency of pre-sarcopenia occurring in women of different age. From September, 2005 to January 2012, the Ukrainian Scientific-Medical Centre for the Problems of Osteoporosis (Kyiv, Ukraine) has examined 8637 women aged 20-89 years. Lean and fat masses were measured by DXA using a densitometer Prodigy, GE. Appendicular skeletal mass was measured at all the four limbs with DXA. We’ve also calculated the appendicular skeletal mass index (ASMI) according to the formula: ASM/height (kg/m2). For calculation of frequency of pre-sarcopenia occurring in the women aged 65 years and older, we used the ASMI cutoff for sarcopenia proposed by Baumgartner R. (5.45 kg/m2 for women). We have found a significant influence of age on the variability of lean and fat masses in women. The maximal parameters of fat and lean masses were observed in those aged 50-59 years. The median frequency of pre-sarcopenia ascertained by DXA is 7%. The highest frequency was determined in the age-group of 85-89 years (10.4%).
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