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  • ISSN: 2374-0094
    Early Online
    Volume 4, Issue 2
    Research Article
    Patrick L. Leoni*
    We develop a comprehensive analysis of the main economic and financial aspects associated with the R&D process of an AIDS vaccine. We describe the main impediments to starting the R&D, and the current financial mechanisms to alleviate them. We make explicit their inefficiencies, and we present novel mechanisms providing greater incentives to undertake the R&D. We also analyze the financial risks associated with the commercialization phase after a successful R&D venture, and we emphasize the critical importance of the patents’ system.
    Muller Santha*, Atlesh Nand Sudhakar, Dashika Balak, Morgan Downes, and Mike Kama
    CD4+ T-cell count through the use of Flow Cytometry technology is considered as a “gold standard” and a pivotal parameter particularly for the management of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients at the various stages of the disease. Fiji is classified as a low prevalent country for HIV with a report of 725 positive cases by December 2016 since the first case was diagnosed in 1989. The essential monitoring tool for HIV disease progression in resource limited settings such as Fiji has now become one of the key challenges especially for the timely initiation of Anti-Retroviral Therapy (ART) to HIV infected patients. Medical Research Laboratory (MRL) has initiated a case control cohort study in 2015 by introducing a state -of -art 4 colored Accuri C6 Flow Cytometry to determine the CD markers such as CD8+ and CD45+ cells in addition to CD3/CD4+ T-cell enumerations and percentages compared to negative controls. The differences of CD4 + T cell between HIV patients and controls were also calculated among males and females The data analyzed shows that the mean absolute CD3+/CD4+ count in HIV seronegative controls and HIV seropositive cases was 752 ± 233 (cells/µL) and 292 ±141 (cells/µL), respectively (P < 0.01). In the present study, a wide variation in the mean of CD4+, CD45+ counts, and CD4:CD8 ratio between the HIV positive cases and seronegative controls were observed where cases generally showed the lower count. With the advent of versatile and first of its kind advanced medical tool, Flow Cytometry technology can be used for the monitoring of leukocyte changes as a barometer of disease progression in HIV patients in Fiji. Although alternate technologies have been commercially developed, Flow Cytometry remains the current standard. Therefore, this technology will be unprecedentedly relevant to the Ministry of Health and Medical Services (MoHMS) Fiji considering the improvement of the ART for HIV patients and facilitation of a positive health information policy in the future.
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