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  • ISSN: 2333-6714
    Current Issue
    Volume 4, Issue 2
    Review Article
    Caue Benito Scarim*, Ednir de Oliveira Vizioli, Jean Leandro dos Santos, and Chung Man Chin#
    Traditional herbal medicines is largely used in folk medicine worldwide and related to be safe by general population. The non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a class of drugs, including selective or not for inhibition the isoform 2 of ciclooxigenase (COX2) largely used to treat acute or chronic inflammation and several side effects are related to long term use of NSAIDs. Despite its use widespread as well as the natural products (NP), documented NSAIDs-NP interactions are sparse. The NP may interfere on the effect of the NSAIDs increasing the anti-inflammatory activity and also reduce tissue damages. However, NP can also produce changes leading to hepato or nephrotoxicity. This work reviews the NSAIDs-NP (green tea, resveratrol, curcumin, kava, ginkgo biloba and ephedra) interaction with an emphasis of the mechanistic and clinical consideration.
    Christiana M. Neophytou and Andreas I. Constantinou*
    Survivin, the smallest Inhibitors of Apoptosis Protein (IAP) family member has essential roles in mitosis, inhibition of programmed cell death and the cellular stress response. Survivin is physiologically expressed during embryonic development where it acts by antagonizing apoptosis and promoting proliferation in the developing tissues. In terminally differentiated normal human tissues, Survivin is either undetectable or expressed at very low levels; it is however, highly expressed in all primary tumor types and is considered a predictor of tumor aggressiveness and a biomarker of poor prognosis and bad clinical outcomes. Moreover, Survivin expression is correlated with resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy-induced apoptosis. In this short communication we review the most important information regarding the transcriptional regulation of the survivin gene. Furthermore, we examine how the Survivin protein is implicated in cell cycle transition and how it is inhibiting apoptosis in cancer. Finally, we discuss selective therapeutic approaches targeting this small but very important gene and its protein.
    Ana De Malet* and Israel Ganan2
    Nocardiosis is the infection produced by a group of aerobic actinomycetes belonging to the Nocardiaceae family. It is an infrequent infection, but with an associated mortality of more than 60% produced by the different species of genus Nocardia. Nocardia sp is an opportunistic microorganism that affects between 0.04% and 3.5% of patients with solid organ transplantation (SOT), causing local infections that mainly affect the lung. It is capable of producing invasive infection which requires long antimicrobial therapy. Its diagnosis is complex due to the non-specific symptoms that it produces. It is based on the isolation and identification of the microorganism in the affected tissues such as bronchoalveolar lavage, pleural fluid, abscesses or blood. The objective of this review is to vet the incidence of nocardiosis in patients with SOT and to guide in the empiric antimicrobial treatment.
    Research Article
    Jay H. Shah*, Anand IS, Shah GB, and Shah KK
    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder characterized by airway inflammation and airway hyper-responsiveness to inhaled stimuli. The production and release of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6) from monocytes/macrophages play critical role in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory diseases and immune response. Azadirachta indica is a well-known medicinal plant in the Indian traditional system with immunomodulatory action. In present study, the anti-inflammatory activity of herbal immune modulator Azadirachta indica was studied by evaluating the inhibition of LPS stimulated TNF-α secretion using human Monocytic THP-1 cells. Differentiation of the human monocytic cell THP-1 into macrophage-like cells was induced by exposure of the cells to Phorbol Myristate Acetate. When cells were pre-incubated with Methanolic extract of Azadirachta indica and then stimulated with LPS, secretion of TNF-α was significantly decreased compared to control. Further to in vitro study, trypsin and egg albumin induced chronic model of asthma was used to evaluate the anti-asthmatic action of Azadirachta indica in experimental induced asthma in mice. Various parameters such as pO2, serum bicarbonate level, tidal volume, respiratory rate, eosinophil count in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid etc. were measured after the treatment with Methanolic extract of Azadirachta indica compared to control. The results of this study were in line with expected responses observed with standard anti-asthmatic agents. Thus the present study has shown that the Azadirachta indica inhibits the production and release of proinflammatory cytokines, TNF-α from monocytes/macrophages which play critical role in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory diseases and thereby suggesting its possible use in inflammatory diseases such as Asthma.
    Perspective
    Nitya G. Chakraborty*
    Although generating a robust and long-lived cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response to tumor associated antigens faces many constraints, adoptive immunotherapy has impressive clinical responses. The negative role of regulatory T cells (Treg) on immune responses, especially against “self” antigens (tumor associated antigens), has turned out to be a major constraint. In a recent report with tumor infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) derived Treg cells fromhuman breast cancer and colon cancer, De simone’s group has clearly demostrated a poor prognosis of patients, associated wth increased number of functional Tregs from TIL. In this report we discuss, in human prostate cancer, that peripherally induced Treg (pTreg) cellsplay a major role in the down regulation of effective immunity against cancer whether those effectors are from innate immune system (NKT or NK cells) or from adaptive immunity via antigen specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). Increase of peripheral blood (PBL) derived Treg cell number is directly related to higher gleason scores. PBL derived T cells, natural killer T cells (NKT) and natural killer cell (NK) showed significantly poor activity. Treg cells isolated from the patients with higher gleason score also showed increased suppressive activity in proliferation of conv CD4+ T cells.
    Case Report
    Ayse Baccioglu*, Fusun Kalpaklıoglu, and Gulben Altan
    Wheat dependent exercise induced anaphylaxis (WDEIA) is a type 1 hypersensitivity reaction with early onset symptoms including anaphylaxis. Here, this rare disease is discussed with two cases. These cases were interesting in terms of w-5 gliadin specific IgE positivity, but negativity to gluten as well as the fact that myorelaxant is a rare co-factor in the first case, and negative challenge with wheat and exercise in the second one. As a conclusion, WDEIA should be kept in mind in case of exercise and/or food intake alone does not constitute a clinical picture. Furthermore, negative challenge test with wheat and exercise may not always exclude the diagnosis of WDEIA, and a search for co-factors should be done. The mainstay of management is prevention of further episodes by keeping away from the wheat specific triggers, and other possible co-factors before exercise.
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