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  • ISSN: 2379-0636
    Current Issue
    Volume 3, Issue 5
    Short Communication
    Urszula Posmyk* and Krzysztof Simon
    Abstract:
    Analysis of the epidemiological situation of the Invasive Meningococcal Disease in the Opole voivodship in 2005-2012 in relation to the situation in Poland and other various voivodships.
    Methods: In order to achieve the goals of the research the analysis of documents held by the State Sanitary Inspection agencies in Opole voivodship and of infections of Neisseria meningitidis was used.
    Results: In Opole voivodship an increase in the incidence of disease from one case in 2005 to 39 cases in 2007 was observed (incidence of 0.1 to 3.75 / 100 000) and a decrease in the incidence 2008-2010 from 6 to 2 cases (incidence of 0.6 to 0.19).
    Conclusions: In Poland in the above mentioned period there was an increase of incidence of the Invasive Meningococcal Disease, in addition to cases of occasional outbreaks of epidemic, mainly caused by the meningococcus serogroup C. Epidemiological and microbiological surveillance was strengthened and the National Reference Centre for the Diagnosis of Bacterial Infections of the Central Nervous System KOROUN was set up.
    Palacios R*, Gonzalez-Domenech CM, Antequera I, Ruiz-Morales J, Nuno E, Marquez M, Clavijo E, and Santos J
    Abstract:
    Purpose: To examine if there are any epidemiological, clinical or immunovirological differences between men who have sex with men (MSM) who are simultaneously diagnosed with syphilis and HIV infection, compared with those who are only diagnosed with HIV infection.
    Methods: All cases of HIV-MSM diagnosed at our centre in 2009-2015 were reviewed, excluding those with a diagnosis of syphilis previous to the HIV infection. Epidemiological, clinical, and analytical data at the time of HIV diagnosis were recorded, and patients with a simultaneous diagnosis of syphilis were compared with those without syphilis.
    Results: During the study period 566 patients were diagnosed with HIV infection (446 MSM); 37 patients were excluded, so the final sample included 409 MSM. Of these, 72 (17.6%) were diagnosed with syphilis at the same time as their diagnosis of HIV infection. Syphilis was asymptomatic in 34 (47.2%) cases. The epidemiological, and clinical characteristics were similar in patients with or without syphilis, and no differences were found in basal viral load (4.67 vs 4.66 log copies/mL p=0.3) or CD4 cell count (431 vs 428 cell/L p=0.7).
    Conclusions: Syphilis does not impact on the clinical presentation or on the immunovirological parameters when the diagnoses of both syphilis and HIV are coincident. The specific weight that Treponema pallidum infection may have in HIV infected patients not on antiretroviral therapy is minimum.
    Review Article
    Salem Bouomrani*, Safa Trabelsi, Hanne Nouma, Hassen Bali, Nessrine Belgacem, Najla Lassoued, and Maher Bji
    Abstract:
    Aseptic non infective meningitis are rare but represent a veritable diagnostic challenge to the clinician because their clinical and cerebrospinal fluid profile are similar to those of classic infectious meningitis. The most frequent etiologies of these meningitis are: systemic diseases, drugs, and neoplasms but several other exceptional causes can also be found. The aim of this review is expose the different possible causes to evoke and discuss in patient with aseptic meningitis (infectious causes excluded).
    Appavu K. Sundaram*, Cheng-Rei R. Lee, and Shuenn-Jue L. Wu
    Abstract:
    Early and accurate diagnosis of dengue fever (DF), the leading arthropod-borne viral disease, is critical for patient triage, better patient management, surveillance, pathogenicity and vaccine research studies. DF presents as an undifferentiated fever initially and exhibits DF-specific symptoms as the disease progresses. Laboratory diagnostic assays are useful during the early acute phase of infection when viremia is observed as well as during the early convalescent phase when IgM and IgG antibodies are present. If the patients are not diagnosed early and given intensive supportive care, mast cell degranulation in response to dengue virus (DENV) infection and antibody dependent enhancement effects during the secondary infections could lead to severe form of the disease, marked by internal bleeding and vascular leakage, and result in mortality. This aspect emphasizes the importance of an accurate DF diagnosis at early stage of the infection. Currently, most laboratory dengue diagnosis is achieved by DENV isolation, DENV RNA detection, ELISA for anti-DENV IgM and IgG antibodies and DENV non-structural protein 1 (NS1) as well as lateral flow immunochromatographic tests (ICTs) for anti-DENV IgG and IgM antibodies and NS1 antigen. Novel technologies and methods that show great potential for improved DF diagnostics in the future are also briefly discussed.
    Research Article
    Elisa Maria Pinzon Gomez, Mauricio Hernandez Carrillo*, Maria Cristina Lesmes Duque, Carlos Frisherald Daza Rivera, Maria Eugenia Ortiz Carrillo, Juan Fernando Millan Hurtado, and Ivan Dario Ocampo Ibanez
    Abstract:
    Introduction: Dengue fever, a disease of serious epidemiological, social, and economic impact, has become a threat to global public health.
    Objective: To determine the seroprevalence of dengue in five municipalities with hyperendemic and mesoendemic transmission.
    Materials and methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study derived from a macro-project funded by the Ministry of Health and implemented by the Valle Department of Health. Using multistage probability sampling by cluster, 822 people were selected for the study.
    Results: The seroprevalence of dengue was 91.36% using the IgG indirect ELISA test for dengue, and in addition, on applying the IgM capture test for dengue the seroprevalence was 21.41%. The joint seropositivity of IgM and IgG antibodies was 20.3%.
    Conclusion: The high general seroprevalence of dengue from the IgG test shows the impact of this disease throughout the life history of the residents of these five municipalities. A high percentage of people with a recent infection had a history of dengue which favors the development of the severe form of the disease.
    These results suggest the possibility of using the tetravalent vaccine given that where there are a greater number of antibodies there is a better immune system response to the vaccine.
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