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  • ISSN: 2379-0636
    Volume 5, Issue 1
    Research Article
    Mariel B. Ochoa, Bo-young Hong, and Jorge L. Cervantes*
    Dengue and Leptospira not only share ecological niches, but also manifest with similar clinical presentation. Serologic evidence shows that co-infection by both pathogens is not uncommon in endemic areas. After performing a systematic search, we have here reviewed and analyzed a series of case reports on dengue-Leptospira coinfection from around the world.
    We observed a positive correlation between bilirubin with hematocrit, and a negative correlation between platelets and hematocrit, and platelets and pulse, as well as between fever and creatinine, during co-infection. Mortality was a variable accounting for data clustering. Differences in age may also play a role in the mortality of co-infection with leptospirosis and dengue
    A physician's consideration of the possibility of co-infection, and knowledge of the clinical presentation of when both infections are present, may allow for a rapid diagnosis and an adequate treatment plan that may reduce mortality.
    Case Report
    Salem Bouomrani* and Wided Letaief
    The primary renal localization of the hydatid cyst (HC) is exceptional and unusual. It is one of the so-called "aberrant" or "ectopic" localizations of human echinococcosis with an overall prevalence estimated at 1.5-5% but is exceptionally isolated and primitive.
    The association of echinococcosis with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) remains exceptional and suggests a hypothetical causal link.
    We report the original observation of a primary and isolated renal HC diagnosed in a 59-year-old Tunisian woman followed for SLE.
    Our observation is, to our knowledge, the fourth to report this association. It is characterized by its exceptional location (kidney) and its isolated and primitive character.
    Thus a screening for hydatidosis seems to be beneficial for subjects monitored for lupus disease in the endemic areas of this parasitosis.
    Asmita Shukla and Jack D. Sobel*
    We report four women with seropositive Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) presenting with concomitant Desquamative Inflammatory Vaginitis (DIV). No convincing evidence emerged establishing a causal connection between RA and DIV, or indicating that DIV was an extra- articular manifestation of RA. Similarly, use of rituximab was not shown to be a causal factor in pathogenesis of vaginitis.
    Mini Review
    Stephen KC Ng*
    The pandemic of COVID-19 caused by a novel corona virus now known as SARS CoV-2 which started in Wuhan, China in December 2019 has to date (April 29, 2020) infected more than three million people worldwide with over 227,000 fatalities. Despite rapid identification and sequencing of SARS CoV-2, the origin and mode of transmission of this virus has not been fully elucidated. At the start of the epidemic, it was suggested that bats might be the primary host and wild animals sold in the Wuhan Huanan Seafood Market could be intermediate hosts of the virus. Subsequent epidemiologic studies did not support the market as the origin and sole source of the outbreak. Detailed examination of the timeline of the epidemic suggests that sewer rats might be an important intermediate host between bats and humans. This hypothesis is parsimonious with current observations and can explain in part the limited success of containing the epidemic in Wuhan with strict quarantine of its human population.
    Review Article
    Leung Ping-chung, Chan Chung-lap Ben, and Wong Chun-kwok
    During the current COVID-19 pandemic, since the crisis started in China, extensive reports regularly came out from China National Health Authorities and individual epidemiological and viral experts of different origins, giving the up-date data of the spread and treatment regularly. Reports concerning the use of Traditional Chinese Medicine were plenty. Collection and analysis of the rich data provide good understanding how Tradition Chinese Medicine was utilized in the combat against the COVID-19 infection. Early reports obviously emphasized the treatment aspects. Later reports had more information on the preventive side since the overall clinical presentation of COVID-19 involved many mild cases, treatment of which, using herbal medicine, should resemble situations of prevention before the actual contraction of the infection.
    Later, the National Bureau of Traditional Chinese Medicine and the Committee on Public Health and Hygiene gave proper recommendations on the prevention side and advocated the joint utilization of one common herbal formula.
    Apart from critically looking at the clinical value of the selected common herbal formula, the basic mechanisms leading to prevention: how is personal protection achieved need to be explored. Could it be related to the boosting of the innate immunological system? This could be the direction of current research planning.
    The plan of research involves a systematic investigation on how the innate immunological system respond to the herbal treatment. The research procedures under planning concentrate on the in-vitro and in-vivo investigations in laboratory platforms on the responses to herbal treatment. A small pilot study will further strengthen the evidences when 30-40 healthy volunteers will get their blood checked before and after consumption of the innovative formula.
    The herbal formula recommended by the Chinese Authorities will not be used as the target of investigation since it contains 21 herbs one of which (Asarum) is well known for renal toxicity. Instead, an innovative formula of simpler composition that has won good clinical trust in the SARS crisis of Hong Kong in 2003 will be the subject of study, to be investigated together with Vitamin D as a coupling supplement for infection prevention of the respiratory tract.
    Muhammad Torequl Islam*
    Technology-dependent therapeutic strategy has gained much attention during the coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) pandemic worldwide. Besides many others, financial crisis, virus transmission fear, lockdown and hygienic rules and regulations, chance of getting comorbidity, physicians centered on Covid-19 patients, and hospitalization facilities are the major obstacles that limiting many kinds of patients to access to the required treatment facilities. Although the digital approaches are not a straightforward strategy, but proper control and management chain may be a landmark step in modern medical services, especially in low- and middle-income countries where fragile health management exists. This article highlighted the importance of skyrocketing technology-based therapeutic strategy during Covid-19, might be a hopeful therapeutic model in the modern health care system.
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