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  • ISSN: 2333-6455
    Current Issue
    Volume 5, Issue 2
    Research Article
    Svetlana V Vasilieva*, Maria S Petrishcheva, and Elizaveta I Gusarova
    The roles of endogenous gaseous transmitters as the key signaling molecules in the DNA repair and regulators of biofilm formation have been increasingly appreciated. Gasotransmitters NO, CO and H2S are generated and regulated enzymatically in all biosystems and act in concert to coordinate cell responses. However, exactly how this interaction is achieved is not known. We focus on the genetic and physiological study of interactions between nitric oxide and hydrogen sulfide gasotransmitters in bacterial cells. Escherichia coli strains and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were usually tested in biofilm production and dispersion. The NO-donors – crystalline nitrosyl iron complexes NO-29 and NO-33 with thiourea as a ligand, tetranitrosyl iron complex with thiosulfate (TNICthio) and GSNO were used in pure solutions and in co-administration with H2S. We have obtained experimental evidence for contribution of hydrogen sulfide in promoting DNA repair and reducing the level of biofilm production when H2S was co-administrated with the alternative NO-donors. The suppressive potency of NO-complexes was comparable with that of antibiotic ciprofloxacin. The cellular Fe-S biosynthesis is linked to biofilm formation, while Fe2+ – chelator Ferene inhibits both processes. According to our observations, H2S, in contrast to NO, does not act as a typical signal in bacteria. It interacts with the true NO signals to ensure the NO-signaling mechanisms to optimize the control of stress challenges.
    Mohammed Sbiti*, Khalid Lahmadi, and Lhoussaine Louzi
    Rubella is a contagious viral infection that affects pregnant women during early pregnancy which leads to the infection of a developing fetus, causing congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). Although rare in many industrialized countries, because of the success of vaccination programs, rubella continued to occur in many developing countries with no vaccination program. Rubella immunization rates are not optimal; World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that countries without vaccination programs should assess the burden of rubella infection and CRS. In Morocco, Rubella containing vaccine (RCV) was introduced in routine immunization of children in 2003. In a retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted between January and December 2015, we sought to determine the sero-prevalence of anti-rubella IgG in 1399 pregnant women in our region. The mean age was 31.20 ± 5.90 years (range 17 - 45 years) using chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay and we examined for anti-rubella IgM antibodies for sera considered negative (< 10 IU/mL) for rubella IgG. A questionnaire was used to obtain the socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics for 280 the pregnant women. A total of 1240 of the pregnant women examined were positive (= 10 IU/mL) for rubella IgG giving a prevalence of 88.6 %, and 159 (11.4%) were susceptible. There was no evidence of recent infection within the study period. Study period as shown by negative IgM result.
    The quantitative analysis for rubella IgG showed a noticeable variability in the values of antibodies that ranged between 0-263 IU/ml. A clear majority of the sample had values of antibodies >50 IU/ml. Although most women tested were seropositive for rubella IgG (81% - 94.6 %) according to the socio-demographic and obstetrics characteristics, suggesting a natural virus circulation within the community, screening for protective immunity followed by vaccination to those who were susceptible should be enforced to prevent possible rubella congenital syndrome. Most (11.4%) of the pregnant women who were sero-negative in their first pregnancy were not immunized against rubella.
    Sherill Tesalona*, Evelina Lagamayo, Isa Noelle Evangelista, Mikaela Joy Ormita, Carissa Janelle Pacia, Mariah Ericka Patawaran, Jeanne Mari Santos, Sheila Marie Santos, Monette Soriano, Patricia Eriana Ramos, and Maria Ruth Pineda-Cortel
    Introduction: The main objective of the study is to detect the presence of blaOXA-23 and blaNDM-1 in carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa (CRPA) and A. baumannii(CRAB).
    Methodology: Ten strains (3 CRPA, 7 CRAB) of carbapenem-resistant isolates were used in this study. All strains were identified using VITEK® 2 Compact. Antibiotic sensitivity testing was also done using VITEK® 2 Compact while retesting of carbapenem resistance was done by Kirby Bauer disk diffusion method. Genotypic identification was done through conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR). For the statistical analysis, Chi-Square Dependency Formula, and Continuity Correction were applied.
    Results: All (10/10) strains of CRAB and CRPA isolates harbored the blaOXA-23(501bp), 7(70%) and 3 (30%), respectively. Meanwhile, 5 (72%) out of 7 CRAB and 2 (67 %) out of 3 CRPA isolates had been found positive for blaOXA-23(621bp) only. In addition, 2 (28%) CRAB isolates and only 1 (33%) CRPA isolate tested positive for both blaOXA-23 and blaNDM-1. The blaOXA-23 producing CRAB and CRPA has the following antibiotic resistance profile: cefepime, ceftazidime, gentamicin, piperacillin/tazobactam, amikacin and colistin: 7 (70%), 8 (80), 9 (90%), 10 (100%), 1 (10%) and 0% respectively. Furthermore, the CRAB and CRPA isolates positive for both blaOXA-23 and blaNMD-1 have the following antibiotic resistance profile: 100% resistance to cefepime, ceftazidime, gentamicin and piperacillin /tazobactam; while, 0% resistance to amikacin and colistin, respectively. Most CRAB and CRPA strains positive for OXA-23 were isolated from respiratory specimens, 5 (50%). Whereas, those with both OXA-23 and NDM-1 gene was equally distributed to respiratory specimen 1 (10%), urine 1 (10%) and blood 1 (10%).
    Conclusion: This study concludes that the blaOXA-23 was prevalent to CRAB and CRPA. BlaOXA-23 is more prevalent than blaNDM-1. This study also concludes the coexistence of multiple MBL genes in CRAB and CRPA.
    Review Article
    Bedi B, Maurice NM, and Sadikot RT*
    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important opportunistic pathogen causing a variety of acute infections including nosocomial pneumonias, sepsis, urinary tract infections, keratitis, wound and skin infections. P. aeruginosa continues to be a leading cause of infections in immune compromised host including patients with cystic fibrosis and is among the most virulent of the opportunistic pathogens. The outcome of P. aeruginosa infection depends on the virulence factors displayed by the bacteria as well as the host response. The virulence of P. aeruginosa is multifactorial and includes a variety of cell associated and extracellular proteins. P. aeruginosa has also developed mechanisms to clinically colonize surfaces by co ordinately expressing genes in a density dependent manner by the production of small diffusible molecules called auto inducers or quorum sensing (QS) molecules. Activation of the QS cascade promotes formation of bio films, structured communities that coat mucosal surfaces and invasive devices. These bio films make conditions more favorable for bacterial persistence as embedded bacteria are inherently more difficult to eradicate than those in the planktonic form. Here, we provided an in depth review of development, composition, transcriptional regulation, experimental models and dispersal of P. aeruginosa bio films.
    Falkinham JO III*
    There is widespread evidence of increases in the prevalence and incidence of opportunistic premise plumbing pathogens (OPPPs) such as Legionella pneumophila, Mycobacterium avium, Acinetobacter baumanii, and Stenotrophomonas maltophila. The prevalence of Legionnaire’s disease, caused by L. pneumophila, is increasing at 10 % per year to almost 20,000 currently and pulmonary mycobacterial disease, caused by M. avium complex and other nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) is rising at a rate of between 5 and 15 % to 85,000 based on current estimates. In spite of the increasing prevalence of these infections, proof that the source of these microorganisms is drinking water, and the cost and complexity of treatment, there is almost no monitoring for their presence and number. Currently, only cases of Legionnaire’s Disease must be reported. Standard does not measure of microbiological quality of water, fecal coliform nor heterotrophic plate count (HPC) predicts numbers or presence of OPPPs. However, Pseudomonas aeruginosa could be used as an indicator for OPPPs. P. aeruginosa occupies the same habitats as OPPPs (e.g., drinking water) and shares many characteristics (e.g, disinfectant-resistance and biofilm-formation) in common with OPPPs. The literature shows that the numbers of P. aeruginosa correlate with L. pneumophila, M. avium, A. baumanii, or S. maltophila. Herein, I propose that studies be performed to determine whether presence/absence or numbers of P. aeruginosa correlate with those of OPPPs. Fortunately, both cultural- and qPCR-based methods can be used for specific detection and enumeration of P. aeruginosa suggesting that P. aeruginosa testing of water could be implemented widely.
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