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  • ISSN: 2333-6455
    Early Online
    Volume 5, Issue 3
    Research Article
    Sherill Tesalona* Evelina Lagamayo, Edmalin Tuban, Mary Genevieve Ello, Rika Hoshina, Maria Evangeline Millado, Earl JustinSale, AnsherinaJoiSevilla, Fayye Ann Eloise Solquio, Mary AngeliTienzo, Randvyr Timtiman, and Maria RuthPineda-Cortel
    Introduction: Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are common opportunistic bacteria causing nosocomial infections among hospitalized patients. Aside from being opportunistic, these bacteria, nowadays, are exhibiting resistance to some antibiotics, making antibiotic therapy difficult and challenging. With this, we aimed to determine the presence of some resistance-causing genes such as blaIMP-1 and blaVIM-2, from carbapenem-resistant A.baumannii (CRAB) and carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa (CRPA).
    Methodology: Purposive sampling was used wherein all CRAB and CRPA isolates were collected from two selected tertiary hospitals in Metro Manila, Philippines. Phenotypic identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing of the isolates were done using VITEK® 2 Compact. Carbapenem resistance was retestedusing Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. For the genotypic identification of the presence of blaIMP-1 and blaVIM-2, the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) of the samples was isolated and purified.It was thenamplified through conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR).Amplicons produced were run through gel electrophoresis for the visualization of bands indicating the presence of blaIMP-1 at 740 bp and blaVIM-2 at 865 bp.
    Results: We detected the genes blaIMP-1 and blaVIM-2 in four (58%) and one (14%) CRAB isolates, respectively. One (14%) isolate has both blaIMP-1 and blaVIM-2. While in CRPA isolates, only blaIMP-1was detected in two (67%) isolates. In terms of the antibiotic profiling of the isolates with blaIMP-1 and blaVIM-2, we found that all are resistant against ceftazidime and ciprofloxacin (100%); seven (87.5%) against cefepime, gentamicin, and piperacillin/tazobactam; and one (12.5%) against amikacin. Furthermore, the antibiotic profile of the isolates with no blaIMP-1 and blaVIM-2 are the following: all are resistant against cefepime, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, and piperacillin/tazobactam (100%). On the other hand, both blaIMP-1 and blaVIM-2 negative isolates are sensitive to amikacin. All isolates (100%) are sensitive against colistin.
    Conclusion: We conclude thatblaIMP-1 is present in CRAB and CRPA, and itis more frequent thanblaVIM-2.This study also concludes the coexistence of multiple metallo-β-lactamase genes in CRAB isolates.
    Review Article
    Sherill Tesalona*, Evelina Lagamayo, and Ace Bryan Cabal
    Antibiotic resistance profile and the presence of several metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) genes conferring resistance to carbapenem were investigated in this study. Previously identified carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa(P. aeruginosa) were tested for MBL enzymes using E-test. Amplification of blaVIM-2, blaIMP-1, and blaSPM-1 was done using conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Antibiotic resistance pattern of each antibiotic tested among MBL and non-MBL producing strains were statistically tested using Fisher exact test. Any p = 0.05 were considered significant. Of the 39 CRPA collected and tested, 10 MBL producing strains were detected, 9 (23.1%) carried the blaIMP-1 and 1 (2.5%) carried the blaVIM-2, whereas blaSPM-1 was not observed. Increased resistance against ceftazidime, piperacillin/tazobactam, and ciprofloxacin in blaIMP-1 and blaVIM-2 -producing strains showed significant difference compared to non-blaIMP-1 and non-blaVIM-2 producing strains (p<0.05). On the other hand, blaIMP-1 and blaVIM-2 producing strains with increased resistance to cefepime, and gentamicin has no significant difference when compared to non-blaIMP-1 and non-blaVIM-2 producing strains (p>0.05). This study concludes the presence of blaIMP-1 and blaVIM-2-producing P. aeruginosa in the Philippines represented by the two [2] out of three [3] tertiary hospitals in Metro Manila that participated in this study. The presence of these MBL genes poses a threat in the pharmaceutical and medical industries. Furthermore, the detection of these genes can be used in a rational design of diagnostic platforms.
    Tarig MS Alnour* and Eltayib Hassan Ahmed-Abakur
    Drug resistant bacteria which are known as super bugs are challenging worldwide problems as they increase the costs of hospitalization, uses of highly toxic drugs and may associated with high mortality rate. Multidrug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MDRPA) is one of the most important drug resistant strains. This review handling the frequency of MDRPA, risk factors and resistance mechanisms associated with MDRPA. It's naturally known that P. aeruginosa express a high resistant manner, this attributed to loss of membrane permeability, efflux pumping of the antimicrobial agents and acquired resistant through acquisition of resistance genes in addition to its virulence factors which contribute to the resistance mechanisms. The frequency of MDRPA ranged from 12-36% of isolated P. aeruginosa from different location of the world. It's highly recommended to focus on drug resistance mechanisms for all microorganisms especially MDR P. aeruginosa to avoid having untreatable infection and superbugs.
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