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  • ISSN: 2334-1815
    Current Issue
    Volume 6, Issue 1
    Review Article
    Federica Valentini*, Andrea Calcaterra, Vincenzo Ruggiero, Mattia Di Giacobbe, Maurizio Botta, and Maurizio Talamo
    Pristine Graphene (pG) could represent a new and promising nanomaterial for medicine applications, because it does not catalyze the production of ROS (Reactive Oxgen Species), being in total absence of oxygenated functional groups. In fact, pG either in a dispersed or aggregated form, does not increase mitochondrial oxidant generation or induce apoptosis in lung macrophages, working at room temperature. pG presents another problem due to its thermal instability. In fact, it is very well known that pG spontaneously wrap up forming nanotubes (which result highly toxic for humans, because of their typical asbestos like structures). On the other hand, Graphene Oxide (GO) provokes severe lung injury that persists for more than 21 days after administration. In cultured alveolar macrophages and epithelial cells, GO induces the generation of mitochondrial ROS, by participating in redox reactions with components of the mitochondrial electron transport chains. Several data, described in literature, suggest that all the chemical-physical processes that maintain the nanoscale dispersion of GO is suitable to reduce the potential health consequences of workplace or environmental exposures and likely facilitate emerging graphene-based biomedical applications. Contrary to pG, the rolling up into the nanotube structures is less favored in presence of GO. It follows that, the GO toxicity is only related to the oxygenated functional groups (as primary sources of OHradical species, O2− and H2O2). However, the functional groups could be deactivated if involved in the formation of stable covalent bonds, which provide the coating of graphenic nano sheets, with suitable biopolymers. The degree and the chemical composition of the oxygenated functionalities results the principal feature, strictly related to the biocompatibility of grapheen nano sheets, but also the two-dimensional planar structure (G is a 2D nanomaterial), the nanometer scale dimensions, the large surface area (~ 3000 m2/g) andthe exceptional optical properties (as the auto-fluorescence), certainly contribute to design graphene materials, as new potential carrier for drugs. Finally, the high electrical and thermal conductivity and the good antibacterial/antimicrobial properties are not to be neglected for graphene, too. In this review, authors present an up-dated state of the art concerning the recent advances in this field of research. Briefly, this work describes current strategies for the large scale production of G and the surface chemistry modification of graphene-based nanocarriers, their biocompatibility and toxicity properties. At the same, the review reports on the most relevant cases of study suitable to demonstrate the role of graphene and graphene derivatives(GD) as nanocarrier of anti-cancer drugs and genes (i.e. miRNAs). Especially,the controlled release mechanisms (inside the cell compartments) are also mentioned and explored in terms of ∆pH, ∆μ (ionic strength variation), chemico-physical mutual interactions, thermal, photo-(i.e. NIR) and electromagnetic induction. Especially the nanodispersion and/or the accumulation/aggregation status of GO, into human cell lines, results mainly pH-sensitive.This pH-activated processesare expected to promote/catalyze targeted therapeutics release in the acidic environment of tumor cells or in intracellular compartments, such as endosome. For this purpose, an important biological factor like blood pH (and ionic strenght) are necessary to discuss in the review.
    The review also summarizes, future prospects and challenges ingraphene derivatives applications for nanobiomedicine, especially in drug deliveryfield applications.
    Mereena Luke*
    Cardiovascular diseases are a major cause of disability and they are currently responsible for a significant number of deaths in a large percentage of the world population. A large number of therapeutic options have been developed for the management of cardiovascular diseases. However, they are insufficient to stop or significantly reduce the progression of these diseases, and may produce unpleasant side effects. In this situation, the need arises to continue exploring new technologies and strategies in order to overcome the disadvantages and limitations of conventional therapeutic options. Thus, treatment of cardiovascular diseases has become one of the major focuses of scientific and technological development in recent times. More specifically, there have been important advances in the area of nanotechnology and the controlled release of drugs, destined to circumvent many limitations of conventional therapies for the treatment of diseases such as hyperlipidemia, hypertension, myocardial infarction, stroke and thrombosis.
    Rineesh NR*, Neelakandan MS, and Sabu Thomas
    Nanoparticles studies have been going on for quite some time now, yet it still holds the scientist’s interest as each day something new and something unique could be thought of and applied in different fields. The properties of metallic particles drastically changes into unique nature at the nanoscale dimensions compared to the bulk. Specifically, gold, silver, zink etc. nanomaterials possess unique physicochemical properties which gain a great deal of attention in biomedical applications. In this chapter, we are mainly discussing the different methods of synthesis of nanosilver particles (NSPs). The properties of silver nanoparticles such as broad-acting and potent antibacterial activity are widely investigated. Also highlighting the constrictions that need to be further studied and explored.
    Research Article
    Rajakumari R, Sabu Thomas and Nandakumar Kalarikkal*
    Graphene is an extremely thin material which has received a huge interest in many areas of science and technology owing to its unique physical, chemical, mechanical and thermal properties. The more challenging aspect of synthesizing graphene in a low-cost and environmental friendly method is a big task. There are various methods to synthesis graphene but the chemical synthesis is considered as the best method because of its advantages like scalable, facile, and inexpensive method. Mostly, the chemicals used for the synthesis of graphene is toxic, corrosive and hazardous. Therefore, in the recent years researchers have been using various eco-friendly/green materials to manufacture a functionalized graphene. Moreover, the green reducers used for the synthesis of graphene is plant extracts, juices and biomolecules. In addition, graphene based nanomaterials (GBNs) have been extensively explored in the most recent years as a novel nanocarrier for the loading of variety of bioactives and these materials is used for the treatment of chronic disease. This chapter gives a brief outline of the green reduction of graphene oxide to graphene and its applications in the nutraceuticals area.
    Karthika Murali*, Neelakandan MS, and Sabu Thomas
    Research interest on biocompatible gold nanoparticles has been highly increased in recent years for potential applications in nanomedicine due to their fascinating size-dependent chemical, electronic and optical properties. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with their biological inertness combined with various physical properties have accomplished an astonishing impact in the biomedical field within a short span. Some of its relevant applications like photothermal therapy, drug delivery, photodynamic therapy, gene therapy, biolabeling, biosensing, etc., are revolutionizing the field of biomedicine that attracts enormous research attention. In this chapter, we are mainly discussing the current applications of gold nanoparticles in biomedicine and the properties that enable them to be a prospective candidate in the same field.
  • Current Issue Highlights
  • Principles and applications of dielectrophoresis (DEP) of biomolecules, suspended in aqueous medium, are reviewed.
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    In this work, microporous TiO2 photocatalyst (IL-TiO2) with high photocatalytic performance was prepared via a sol-gel method using the ionic solvent
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