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  • ISSN: 2334-1815
    Early Online
    Volume 6, Issue 2
    Research Article
    Ajitha AR*, Akhina H, Aswathi MK, LovelyMathew, and Sabu Thomas
    Present review tells the importance of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) for biomedical applications. Various nanomaterials have widespread usage in biomedical applications on considering its tremendous superior properties. Silver nano particles, gold nano particles, carbon fibers, carbon nanotubes, nanowires, nanorods, quantum dots, graphene etc., are being widely investigated for various medicinal applications. Due to the multifunctional nature and unique physicochemical properties, carbonaceous materials (carbon nanotubes, fullerenes, graphenes etc) have extensive application in biomedical field. Among these, functionalized carbon nanotubes (f-CNTs) have great importance in biomedical field, since CNTs can interact with various biomacromolecules by physical adsorption. The improved solubility and biocompatibility of f-CNTs along with its unique optical, mechanical and electrical properties makes them as an efficient candidate for biomedical applications. Biomedical applications of CNTs have been progressing rapidly and it can be accepted as a potential biomedical agent for targeting, drug delivery, imaging, sensoring, etc.
    Aswathi MK, Ajitha AR, Akhina H, Lovely P. Mathew, and Sabu Thomas
    Quantum dots the colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals showing variety of applications because of its size tuneable optical properties. The bioconjugated colloidal nanoparticles showing similarities with biological macromolecules leads its applications to biological fields such as detecting, imaging and drug delivery. This chapter provides a brief description of QDs in biomedical applications especially in bio imaging, tumour cell targeting and drug delivery. In addition to macro scale in vivo imaging techniques nanoscale QD based probes were well matched for fluorescence imaging in biomedical applications.
    Akhina H*, Aswathy MK, Ajitha AR, and Sabu Thomas
    Since the discovery of graphene, studies on its biocompatibility has been conducted by several researchers. Of course, its emergence turns light to tremendous application potential including biomedical applications. In this article, we included some of the facts about the biocompatibility of graphene and graphene based materials and its use as sensor for cancer diagnosing and as anticancer drug delivery carrier.
    Sunija Sukumaran*, Neelakandan MS, Nitheesha Shaji, Parvathy Prasad, and Yadunath VK
    Nanoparticles have a potential impact on numerous biomedical applications. Various synthesis roots and a wide range of applications in the area of bioimaging, drug delivery biosensing, nanomedicine and Magnetic Fluid Hyperthermia (MFH) makes magnetic nanoparticles as an attractive material for bioresearch. Magnetic nanoparticles are a group of nanoparticles that can be influenced using a magnetic field. In recent time these group of particles has been the focus of more research since they have remarkable properties. In nanoscale phenomena of finite size and surface, effects start to dominate the magnetic behaviour of individual nanoparticles. Because of the widespread applications of magnetic nanoparticles [MNPs], in this context, we discuss methods of magnetic nanoparticle synthesis in the first part followed by the role of magnetic nanoparticles in different biomedical applications.
    Review Article
    Sabu Thomas*
    Over the years it has become evident that genes are subjected to mutations and these aberrant genes are responsible for development of cancer. Therefore identifying potent gene sequences that can lead to selective inhibition of these mutated genes led to the emergence of gene therapy. The transfer of designed therapeutic genes for gene therapy have yet to attain complete success and hence it will always be a boon to cancer therapy if scientific research develops a fool-proof carrier or vehicle that can facilitate a sustainable targeted therapy.
    Research Article
    Gokulalakshmi Elayaperumal, Bhaskaran Sathyapriya, and Vanitha Chinnathambi M*
    Fish scale wastes are generally discarded in the environment through fish processing industries and local market vendors. It is one of the excellent and efficient renewable bioproduct. Consequently, a number of bioactive compounds have been identified including bioactive peptides, collagen, chitosan, and gelatin which are commercially marketed. In this present study, we used fish scale waste to extract chitosan polysaccharide and generated chitosan nanoparticles in order to use it for the application purposes. The synthesized chitosan nanosubstances were categorized by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM). In application, the potential use of fish scale nanoparticles as adsorbent for textile dye effluent was investigated under optimized conditions. Antimicrobial activity of synthesized chitosan nanoparticles was performed on various pathogens.
    The viability of utilizing fish scales as an economical bio- adsorbent for elimination of textile dye was studied on industrial effluent. Dye adsorption was studied by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) before and after the dye treatment. The effluent was treated with chitosan nanoparticles and the pH and turbidity of the effluent was measured by Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) assay. The highest flocculation efficiency of chitosan was observed under these conditions. With chitosan nanoparticle treatment, removal of COD was improved to 80% and the turbidity removal efficiency was improved up to 90%.
    These results show inexpensively feasible slant for making of polysaccharide- chitosan from fish waste extract. Thus, the present study provides an excellent bio-adsorbent chitosan nanoparticle generated from fish scales, which have potential application as an adsorbent in bioremediation like wastewater treatment.
    Review Article
    Fatma Sami El-banna, Magdy Mafouz, Maged Elkemary and Nemany AN Hanafy*
    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have obtained interest of scientists for many years. Their features exhibit enhanced optical and electromagnetic properties. For this reason, they are mostly applied for biomedical diagnosis and imaging. Besides that, they are being functionalized as a drug delivery system due to their small size. Since, this size gives them possible penetration into hard tissues. Furthermore, they are more suitable for specific targeting to mitochondria and nucleus. Recently, AuNPs can be modified by surface coating or by being doped with different metals. The results enhanced their potential use in many fields especially for plasmon resonance and bio-imaging. In our review, modification of AuNPs was overviewed.
    Ahmed Magdy, Emad Sadaka, Maged Elkemary and Nemany AN Hanafy*
    Silver nanoparticles exhibit great potential applications as anti microbial agents due to their strong inhibition for microbial growth. However, they can be used with drug delivery system in limitation. Nicked silver nanoparticles can produce free radical causing later mitochondrial dysfunction allowing initialing apoptotic process. In this review, liver as the main target for silver nanoparticles accumulation was overviewed. The mechanism by which silver nanoparticles can produce free radical was highlighted. Finally, it is recommended to functionalize silver nanoparticles with biodegradable polymers conjugated with ligand for certain and specific biomedical purposes.
    Joshy KS, Snigdha S, Anne George, Nandakumar Kalarikkal, Laly A. Pothen, and Sabu Thomas*
    HIV/AIDS has been major source of concern all over the world for past few decades. The current treatment regimes include the use of antiviral drugs belonging to the classes of nucleoside-analog reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs). The use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) using multiple drugs, has raised the life expectancy of HIV-infected patients. However, the HIV infections, is yet to be targeted in anatomical reservoirs, such as the brain, testes, gut, liver, kidney, and secondary lymphoid tissue. Potential nanocarriers have been studied and analysed thoroughly to overcome the hurdles in the delivery of antiretroviral drugs for HIV prevention and therapy. This review provides an insight into the life cycle and infection of HIV and various nanoparticulate delivery vehicles used for anti-retroviral drugs. Biocompatible polymeric nanoparticles, liposomes and hybrid nanosystems have been thoroughly discussed. Such nanostructured materials hold great promise for the future of HIV treatment and can be expected to improve the quality of life of HIV victims.
  • Current Issue Highlights
  • Principles and applications of dielectrophoresis (DEP) of biomolecules, suspended in aqueous medium, are reviewed.

    In this work, microporous TiO2 photocatalyst (IL-TiO2) with high photocatalytic performance was prepared via a sol-gel method using the ionic solvent

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