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  • ISSN: 2333-7087
    Special Issue on Multiple Sclerosis(MS)
    Daniel Jacobs, MD
    Adjunct Associate Professor
    Department of Neurology
    University of Florida Health
    Shands Medical Plaza
    2000 SW Archer Road
    Gainesville, USA
    Case Report
    Ahmed I Bhigjee* and Harshadh C Jeena
    Abstract: Paroxysmal symptoms are common in Multiple Sclerosis. They include tonic spasms, paroxysmal dysarthria, ataxia and Lhermitte's symptom. A rare manifestation is hemifacial spasm. We present a case of Multiple Sclerosis where the presenting symptom was hemifacial spasm thought to be due to a central area of demyelination.
    Editorial
    Konstantin E Balashov*
    Multiple Sclerosis (MS) was recognized as a distinct disease involving both the brain and spinal cord and associated with disseminated demyelinating plaques ("la sclérose en plaques") and axonal damage more than 145 years ago by French neurologist Jean-Martin Charcot [1].
    Saeed Shahbeigi*
    About 2.5 million individuals worldwide are currently being affected by MS [1]. In Europe, mean annual cost per person with MS is estimated to be around €27,000 [2]. In the European Union, the estimated costs of MS are calculated to be at €9 billion per year [3].
    Yasser Falah*
    Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory disorder of the Central Nervous System (CNS) characterised by focal lymphocytic infiltration leading to myelin and axonal damage. The aetiology is unknown but believed to involve environmental and genetic factors [1].
    Sheremata W* and Usmani N
    Studies of environment factors contributing to multiple sclerosis (MS) have provided strong evidence that sun exposure, the most important source of vitamin D, is protective [1-3]. Swank et al in 1952 cited and reviewed geographical disparities in the occurrence of MS in the earlier literature and reported the prevalence of MS in Norway [4].
    Review Article
    Meheroz H Rabadi1,2*
    Abstract: In the past 20 years there have been many notable advances in the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS). This review provides an overview of the recent advances which have taken place in management of patients with MS, rather than just discussing in detail the findings of various randomized trials of recently approved and/or in process of being approved.
    Şadiye Temel1*, Gönül Vural1, Orhan Deniz1, Hesna Bektaş2 and Hava Dönmez Keklikoğlu2
    Abstract: Neuroimaging in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is now dominated by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). MRI has played a central role in the clinical management and scientific investigation of MS. Findings on MRI studies of the brain and spinal cord are critical for diagnosing MS, monitorizing treatment response and predicting disease progression in individual patients. Conventional MRI techniques are used to assess overt lesions and atrophy in the central nervous system and include T2-weighted imaging, proton density-weighted imaging, pre and post gadolinium enhanced T1-weighted imaging, and Fluid-Attenuated Inversion-Recovery images (FLAIR). Nonconventional MRI techniques such as proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (H-MRS), Magnetization Transfer Imaging (MTI), Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI), Diffusion Weighted Imaging (DWI), Diffusion Tensor Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DT-MRI), Double Inversion Recovery (DIR) techniques have increased our understanding of the pathogenesis of MS. In this review, we will focus on the role of MRI in the diagnosis and management of MS.
    Nevzat Uzuner* and Gülnur Tekgöl Uzuner
    Abstract: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory, demyelinating and degenerative disease of the central nervous system. In addition a close relationship between MS lesions and the cerebral vasculature has long been recognized. The cerebral hypoperfusion is associated to the disease process. Additionally, impaired cerebrovascular reactivity might be considered in the pathogenesis of MS; however, the studies have inconsistent results. Another interesting point is impaired vasoneuronal coupling phenomenon in patients with MS. The results of the studies assessing vasoneuronal coupling in MS patients have showed hyperactivity at the occipital region to visual stimulation during attack, but not attack free period of the disease suggesting that demyelinization and axonal degeneration leads the surviving neurons hyperactive. Clinical relevance of these hyperactive neurons needs to be clarified.
    Mini Review
    Marija Sajic*
    Multiple Sclerosis (MS) remains the commonest demyelinating disease and cause of paralysis in young adults in the developed world. MS was identified as a distinct neurological disease by the French physician Jean-Martin Charcot more than 150 years ago. Over 100 years ago Marburg described what we now recognize as a partially remyelinating MS ‘plaque', and in 2 years' time it will be the centenary of the publication of James Dawson's histopathological monograph ‘The Histology of Disseminated Sclerosis', one of the most meticulous and detailed histopathological descriptions of MS [1].
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