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  • ISSN: 2379-9501
    Volume 2 Issue 3
    Review Article
    Yuk Ling Tavia Cheng and Kam Weng Boey
    Abstract: This study examined Kanter’s theory of structural empowerment by exploring the moderating and mediating effect of self-esteem. Participants were frontline nurses (N = 556) of an acute hospital in Hong Kong. Results of the study indicated that structural empowerment was associated with job satisfaction only among nurses with high self-esteem. It was beneficial to positive well-being of nurses with moderate self-esteem but was detrimental to positive well-being among nurses who were low in self-esteem. The impact of only one of the components of structural empowerment (i.e., access to opportunity) was mediated by self-esteem. Self-esteem played a more important role in moderating than in mediating the effects of structural empowerment. The overall findings suggested that to facilitate positive outcomes, personality factors should be considered in the implementation of structural empowerment. Results of this study were discussed with reference to the three different motivational patterns of self-esteem, viz., self-derogation, self-protection, and self-acquisition.
    Carol Rocker*
    Abstract: Doctors and nurses provide procedural sedation to children in a variety of settings-emergency, outpatients, and inpatient units. Procedure guidelines exist in both North American and Canadian Association of Anesthesiologists. Not all providers of procedural sedation adhere to these guidelines. A systematic review of the literature was conducted with the aim of finding evidence supporting pre-operative fasting. Studies were evaluated from electronic databases. No evidence existed to support pulmonary aspiration from vomiting; however, children at risk may be more prone to aspiration. Best practice for nurses providing safe care for children receiving procedural sedation involves: head-to-toe assessment, airway management skills, monitoring vital signs, pulmonary auscultation, and knowledge about resuscitative medications, intravenous equipment, and pharmacologic antagonists.
    Case Report
    Shoshana Melech-Shalom, Orly Liberman* and Raneen Odeh
    Pain has become a topic of much interest amongst health care teams especially among nurses. The literature suggests that about one out of seven members of the elderly population is reported to have chronic pain. Herpes Zoster occurs predominantly in the older adult population. This elderly population age 65 and up is ever increasing and their health and welfare needs represent a growing challenge. Occasionally health care teams invest more effort into reducing pain than relating to the patient as a whole. This paper presents a nursing case study that illustrates that rural nurses see the patient as a whole because of the nature of their work in the community, and positively influence chronic geriatric patient care. Geriatric patients suffering from pain have the opportunity to interact with the nurse on a daily basis in the rural setting thereby supporting a bio-psychosocial approach to care and recovery.
    Rosa Mariela Mirambeaux Villalona*, Deisy Barrios Barreto, Sagrario Mayoralas Alises and Salvador Díaz-Lobato
    A diaphragmatic hernia is a defect in the diaphragm that allows the passage of the abdominal contents into the chest cavity. This pathological entity produces alterations in ventilatory mechanics, leading to respiratory failure, decreased lung volumes and impaired ventilation-perfusion ratio. We report a 63-year-old man with a history of hydatid cyst located at the left diaphragm operated 30 years ago, who presented acute respiratory failure and severe respiratory acidosis and hypercapnic encephalopathy in the context of a restrictive ventilatory disorder secondary to a diaphragmatic hernia. Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) treatment was effective, with correction of acidosis and disappearance of encephalopathic syndrome. The NIV is an essential treatment in these patients prior to surgery, in order to optimize lung function preoperatively, and a fundamental treatment in patients in whom surgical option is not considered.
    Research Article
    Semiha Aydın Özkan, Şükran Başgöl and NeziheKızılkaya Beji
    Aim: The aim of this study is to describe the meaning of urinary incontinence in female geriatric population who experience urinary incontinence.
    Materials and methods: The study was conducted with 11 volunteer women chosen by using criterion sampling method among patients who were aged 65 and over and who applied to the Urogynecology unit in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology in Istanbul University Istanbul Medical Faculty between 1st November and 31st December, 2013. A qualitative methodology using thematic analysis was utilized to conduct the study. The data were collected through a semi-structured interview form with open-ended questions which were prepared by the researchers and which aimed to investigate the effects of incontinence. All the interviews were conducted using in-depth interview technique and the responses were tape recorded. The data were then coded, and the themes related to the topic were created with thematic analysis method.
    Results: The participants mentioned the state of urinary incontinence as an embarrassing or secret situation rather than a disease, thus waited for years before seeking treatment. The themes emerged from the present study included “limitations in social activities”, “unable to be clean, unable to feel clean”, “unable to share with others”, and “unable to do religious obligations”.
    Some of the participants stated that they did not want to travel long distances, and when they had to, they went with their husbands or children. They also stated that they did not want to be in social environments. Some other participants reportedly felt worried about not reaching the bathroom when they need to and thus having incontinence. They also felt worried that their incontinence would be noticed by others.
    In conclusion, this study found that urinary incontinence caused embarrassment for women aged 65 and over; this feeling prevented them from seeking treatment for years.
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