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  • ISSN: 2379-9501
    Volume 3 Issue 2
    Research Article
    Michal Rassin*
    Background: Breaking bad news of a chronic disease that imposes limitations on lifestyle, such as diabetes, is a difficult task, even when the recipient is an adult, more so when the recipient is a youth.
    Objectives: To identify the caregivers' role in delivering the diagnosis of diabetes, from the perspective of young adolescents diagnosed with diabetes.
    Method: The study included 63 young adolescents diagnosed with Type I diabetes. Average age was 12.2 years. Patients filled out a 32 items questionnaire addressing three main subjects: who should deliver the diagnosis, what information should be presented, and what should be the supportive patterns used by the caregivers. The internal reliability of the questionnaire was a = 0.67 – 0.85.
    Results: Young adolescents are primarily interested to know what they are allowed to eat, what treatment will they be given, why do they have diabetes, if the illness will pass away, who will help them cope with the illness and how will it affect their future. It was found that the most suitable subjects to deliver the diagnosis according to the young adolescent's opinion were the doctor, the mother, and a medical clown. Amongst the communication characteristics defined by them as most important were: telling the truth, clear language free from vague statements, and the use of normalization and guilt removal statements.
    Conclusions: Support administered to young adolescents with diabetes, which is focused on the concept that the illness does not prevent the continuation of normal life, may ease emotional distress and contribute to the acceptance of the illness, resulting with good compliance.
    Ahmed Radwan* and Julianne Schultheiss
    Accurate quantification of shoulder dysfunction is a time consuming and difficult to interpret process for patients and health care professionals. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between the results of the Kerlan-Jobe Orthopedic Clinical Scale (KJOC) and the Quick DASH Sports Module (QD) in an attempt to determine the accuracy of their use in quantifying shoulder dysfunction. Participants consisted of National College Athletic Association (NCAA) Division III overhead athletes (28 males, 33 females) with a mean age of (± SD) 19.3 ± (1.1) years, mean weight of 173.6 ± (36.9) pounds, mean height of 67.8 ± (3.5) inches. The two functional questionnaires used were completed in a randomized order with consistent raters. The correlation between KJOC and QD was statistically significant at (r = -.825, p = .01). Similar results were obtained though non parametric analysis of relationship. Clinicians are also incited that the QD was found to be as effective as the KJOC in rating shoulder dysfunction in athletes. It is less time consuming and easy to interpret and to complete by patients.
    Review Article
    Ayla Kaya and Emine EFE*
    This study aims to describe mental, social and cognitive development of pre-school period child. Pre-school period is the time when the individual starts to experience his independence and develops many habits essential to the adult life. Child starts to socialize in these ages. His environment and the received stimulus play a crucial role in physical, mental, social and cognitive development and growth of the child. Therefore, development of a child in pre-school period is a subject that should be analysed with great care and importance.
    Alison Morris* and Kavitha Ramchandran
    Background: It is estimated that by January 2024 there will be 19 million cancer survivors. This can be attributed to break throughs in cancer research and progressive treatment modalities that allow for longer life expectancies. There is also increased morbidity and quality of life impact on cancer patients and families that can be mitigated through an integrated palliative care and oncology approach. How and when to integrate these services is still an area of study. Appropriate screening using evidence-based guidelines may be one method to ensure integrated palliative oncology care.
    Objective: To conduct a literature reviews of screening tools to determine if there is a specific tool that best fits screening for palliative care needs.
    Search Strategy: Cochrane, CINAHL, and PubMed databases were searched. Articles were included if they evaluated the impact of a screening tool or assessment strategy on more than one symptom associated with cancer. Articles were excluded if they (a) focused only on a specific symptom, (b) targeted patients with a particular cancer type, (c) did not pertain to palliative care, and (d) reviewed a non-validated and/or reliable tool.
    Conclusions and Recommendations: This review of evidence strongly supports the utilization of a screening tool and evidence-based clinical care pathways to assist palliative care providers to accomplish better outcomes in a systematic and standardized way. Nursing is ideally situated to provide quality, accessible, interdisciplinary care coordination crucial to patient-centric management of cancer.
    Letter
    Binkowska-Bury M* and Więch P
    I wish to draw your attention to a specific revolution which is going to take place within the community of nurses and midwives. From January 2016 they will be given the authority to write prescriptions. Such competence will be acquired due to the amendment to Act on Professions of Nurse and Midwife passed in July 2014. The proposed changes qualify nurses and midwives who hold master's degree to write prescriptions to medications autonomously. Nurses and midwives with a bachelor's degree will be able to write repeat prescriptions, as a continuation of treatment ordered by the physician.
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