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  • ISSN: 2379-9501
    Volume 3 Issue 4
    Literature Review
    Donia Baldacchino*
    Implementing spiritual care into nursing practice requires nurses to develop knowledge of spirituality, and acquire the necessary skills and attitudes to meet patients' needs. This descriptive exploratory study conducted in Malta sought to identify the nurses' characteristics for delivering spiritual care. The Transpersonal Caring-Healing Framework guided the study. All participants were Roman Catholics except a patient who was affiliated with Islam religion. Data were collected by audio-recorded face to face interviews or focus groups from seven groups of participants: patients with myocardial infarction, cancer; institutionalized older persons; hospital and community chaplains; and nurses and health care professionals. Data analysis was guided by the Content Thematic Analysis Framework. The findings identified one central theme which is 'being in doing' incorporating personal spirituality which can be applied therapeutically to meet patients' spiritual needs. The six sub-themes which explain the nurses' characteristics form the acronym MERVIC namely: role Modeling in spiritual care in the clinical environment to sustain theoretical knowledge; Education on spiritual care in undergraduate and post-graduate programmes; Reflection in and on action as a means of evaluation of spiritual care; Vocation: responding to a personal call to uptake the nursing career; Take Initiative to be present actively to patients; and Commitment to deliver spiritual care. Although Malta is a religious country and the majority of participants were Catholic Christians with the exception of one Muslim, the findings are limited to nurses affiliated with mono-theistic religions. Limitations were acknowledged and recommendations were set for integration of spirituality into the nursing curricula; further research to develop a framework of competences in spiritual care; and trans-cultural longitudinal research to explore further these characteristics, the complex concepts of 'being in doing', and therapeutic use of self in spiritual care.
    Short Communication
    Day MR* and McCarthy G
    Animal hoarding phenomenon, is often misunderstood, and typically involves the acquisition of a large number of animals. The homes of people who hoard animals tend to be cluttered, disorganizead and non-functioning and meet some hoarding criteria such as failing to meet care needs of animals. People who have undue attachments to animals, may see their role as saviors and may portray significant mental health concerns. Animal hoarding is an environmental and social problem that poses significant public health and safety risks on society, animals and economy. It is associated with extreme self-neglect, eviction, mental health issues, mortality and morbidity, behavioral issues and death of animals. Community nurses have a key role in the assessment and identification of clients who hoard animals. A person-centered approach, engagement with animal hoarder, negotiating and establishing, if possible, a relationship of trust, and empowering the client is key. This will contribute to risk assessment, coordinating multidisciplinary and cross agency responses to help reduce health and safety concerns. This paper provides insight into animal hoarding as a serious public health issue, and the role and contribution of nurses.
    Research Article
    Tuba Koc, Duygu Gozen*, Feride Yigit, and Zerrin Cigdem
    Introduction: Family's cultural and traditional practices have a great importance in ensuring the sleep pattern of the infant. This descriptive and cross-sectional study was conducted in order to evaluate the sleep pattern of 6-12 months infants and determine the familial factors that may affect sleep pattern's development.
    Materials and methods: The study was conducted between January-April 2013 with 98 mother-infant pairs who agreed to participate in the study in a family health centre in Istanbul. Infants included in the study are full-term born and healthy infants with a birth weight between 2500-3500 g. The data were obtained by using the questionnaire developed by the researchers in line with the literature and improved according to expert opinions.
    Results & discussion: The average age of infants was 8.09 ± 2.96 months. When mothers were asked if they had difficulties in putting their infants to sleep, 56.1% (n: 55) specified they occasionally have problems. It was found that 62, 2% of mothers singing lullabies, 13,3% were reading books, 56,1% were shaking their infants on their legs and 11.2% on a sheet or 28.6% in the crib for putting their infants to sleep. Mothers explained that left their infants alone on the bed (22, 4%) and breastfeeding (52%) for sleeping.
    Conclusion: Providing mothers with trainings regarding the sleep patterns of infants at FHC can be recommended as an effective nursing practice in developing infants 'sleep patterns.
    Perspective
    Marshall B*, Evans B, Hollema C, and Napierkowski D
    The number of American Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) programs, according to American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN), has grown from 30 in 2006 to 264 in 2014 [1]. The DNP degree prepares nurses to provide patient care at the highest level of education and practice. Programs have two entry levels, the BSN prepared student and the Masters prepared student. The post master's DNP curricula increases the practitioner's knowledge and level of expertise in the areas of research, evidence based practice, information systems and technology, healthcare policy, collaboration, health promotion/disease prevention and advanced nursing practice for individuals, populations and systems [2].
    The DNP heralds a paradigm shift in doctoral nursing education, focusing, on clinical nursing expertise for application of evidence-based practice (EBP) in an increasingly complex health system. This growing field of advanced practice nurses will face the changing landscape of healthcare, and be required to "create clinical strategies that improve practice and health outcomes" [3] (p.330).
    Curriculum development for the DNP must incorporate didactic and practicum learning focused on increasing the student's ability for critical thinking and reflective practice. The nurse moves from the provider of care for one individual to an expert who can apply evidence based practice (EBP) and nursing scholarship; to populations and systems. A review of the literature revealed a gap in knowledge related to the evaluation of the impact of the DNP program on the graduate DNP's nursing practice. Redman, Pressler, Furspan and Potempa (2014) evaluated the number of articles that were authored or co-authored by DNP's as a reflection of scholarship with DNP nurses. Eleven thousand five hundred seventy five DNP students were enrolled in programs as of 2012, with 690 articles identified as being authored/co-authored by DNPs [4]. Half of the articles focused on practice, while the other articles examined issues of health care safety, education, and leadership [4]. Redman et al (2014) identified one method of analysis related to the contribution of the DNP on nursing scholarship. As more universities graduate the doctor of nursing practice scholar, the impact of the scholarship of practice of those graduates will highlight the importance of the degree and the far-reaching effects it will have on the future of nursing. In order to evaluate the comprehensive impact of the degree on DNP graduates, inclusive of the mission embedded in the DNP essentials, a methodology for evaluation of the process and the follow up achievements of the students is needed. This article provides a rubric for conducting both process and outcome evaluations of post master's DNP programs, based on the framework of the Boyer Model of scholarship.
    The Boyer Model (1998) has been broadly applied to nursing, and is used as the definition of scholarship by the American Association of Colleges of Nursing [5,6]. The AACN has identified the scholarship of discovery to include empirical research, historical research, and development of theory, methodological studies and philosophical inquiry [6]. The scholarship of teaching/understanding, defined by AACN, includes discipline or specialty specific knowledge application in teaching and learning, innovation in teaching and evaluation, program development and role modeling in the profession. The scholarship of application, referred to as the scholarship of practice by the AACN identifies practice roles where clinical expertise is required and is demonstrated through the application of nursing into care delivery models, strategies, and evaluation of patient care outcomes. The AACN defines the scholarship of integration as looking at data in a larger way that connects ideas and illuminates it in new ways [6]. The AACN taskforce on defining standards for the scholarship of nursing provided this framework for the evaluation purpose of all nursing programs in institutions of higher learning [6,7]. This article will focus in only on the Post Master's DNP program, evaluating process and outcomes using the Boyer Model Lens.
    Review Article
    Annie Rohan* and Lori Escallier
    Patient Navigation was introduced over two decades ago as a patient-centered approach for identifying individuals most at risk for delays in care, and mitigating barriers to their receipt of care. Patient Navigators provide the logistical and emotional support for completion of discrete episodes of health or illness care. Patient Navigators guide patients through healthcare system complexities, while providing motivational influence for positive behaviors, ensuring that care is as efficient and as seamless as possible. There is significant potential to expand the use of Patient Navigation to assist high-risk patients in achieving adherence to either preventive care or treatment guidelines. Nurses are uniquely suited to excel in Patient Navigation roles. Nurses are trusted professionals who have a presence throughout the healthcare system and are therefore well-positioned to identify, educate and engage high-risk patients or families when they present at healthcare access points, and guide them through completion of a health care episode. Our article discusses potential opportunities to introduce Patient Navigation competencies into undergraduate nursing education curriculum.
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