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  • ISSN: 2333-6706
    Volume 5, Issue 2
    Review Article
    Shing Yan Robert Lee*
    Metabolic bone disease (MBD) of prematurity is mainly caused by inadequate amount of calcium and phosphate in parenteral nutrition admixtures given to premature infants in early days of life before full enteral feeding is established. According to published guidelines/ survey of parenteral nutrition for premature infants in Australia, USA and Europe, it is still a common practice to prepare parenteral nutrition admixtures with calcium and phosphate concentration not high enough to achieve the fetal accretion rate. Therefore, as these bones of premature infants grow without adequate supply of calcium and phosphorus, they are under-mineralized. MBD of prematurity is still prevalent worldwide. Solubility of calcium and phosphate has been a limiting factor for provision of adequate amounts of calcium and phosphate in parenteral nutrition. However, this is no longer true because for more than a decade there have already been studies on the use of organic phosphate and organic calcium in parenteral nutrition showing their compatibility at high concentration, which if provided could achieve the fetal accretion rates. In addition, several studies have shown that these organic forms of calcium and phosphate at such high concentrations are mostly retained. The retention rates vary from 80% to 97% across these studies. Therefore we advocate the use of organic phosphate and organic calcium in preparing parenteral nutrition for premature infants. We recommend: for infants less than 1.2 kg administer calcium and phosphate at 2.2 and 1.7 mmol/kg/day when they are growing. At this rate MBD of prematurity could be minimized.
    Research Article
    Marlene Nunez Aldin, Diana Gabriela Estevez Fernandez, Sayuri Miyamoto, Antonio Martins Figueiredo Neto, and Nagila Raquel Teixeira Damasceno*
    Background: Omega-3 fatty acids (ω-3 FA) have multiple potential mechanisms able to prevent cardiovascular diseases (CVD), however, some clinical trials had failed to confirm changes total and cardiovascular fatal and non-fatal events. Regarding that, our goal was investigated the effect of omega-3 in simultaneous changes in electronegative low-density lipoprotein [LDL(-)] and size of lipoproteins.
    Method: Based in a clinical trial design, subjects of the both sexes, aged 30-74 years old and without previous CVD received 3 g/d of ω-3 FA (37% EPA and 23% DHA) during 8 weeks. At baseline, and after four (T4) and eight (T8) weeks of intervention lipid biomarkers (total cholesterol/TC, LDL-c, HDL-c, Apo AI, Apo B, and NEFA), LDL(-) and physicochemical aspects of LDL and HDL (phenotype, size and concentration) were analyzed.
    Results: ω-3 FA promoted an increase of 4% in plasma DHA, and this change was associated with significant decreasing in TG (P<0.001), TC (P = 0.002), LDL-c (P = 0.003), non-HDL-c (P < 0.001) and their ratios with apolipo proteins. LDL(-) showed significant decrease (∆ T8-T0 = 1.5 U/L; 22.7%). The similar way, HDLLARGE and HDLINTERMEDIATE showed increase, while HDLSMALL decreased. Physical parameters related with LDL not change during fallow-up time. Regression models adjusted for age, sex and smoking showed that individuals with higher incorporation of EPA+DHA in plasma had a higher content of HDLLARGE (P = 0.041) and decreasing in LDL(-) levels (P = 0.004).
    Conclusion: ω-3 supplementation rich in EPA+DHA contributes to improve the size of HDL and decreasing of LDL (-) levels in Brazilian adults with multiple risk factors and previous cardiovascular events.
    Andreza Linhares Floripes, Alanne Ysla Souza de Moura, Fabiana Maria Coimbra de Carvalho, Daliana Caldas Pessoa da Silva, Raphael Paschoal Serquiz, Hugo Alexandre Oliveira Rocha, and Alexandre Coelho Serquiz
    Atemoya is a hybrid fruit containing phenolic substances, mainly flavonoids, which can provide antioxidant, and antimicrobial properties, among others. The phenolic compounds inhibit the action of free radicals, protecting organic molecules, thus being able to prevent carcinogenic processes. Thereby, the present paper aims to evaluate the phytochemical compounds and the cellular viability of atemoya extracts in human renal carcinogenic lineages. For such, the cytotoxicity capacity of three extracts of the fruit (seed, pulp and peel) was tested for tumor (786-0) and normal (HEK-273) lineages. Cytotoxicity was evaluated indirectly by the enzymatic reduction of 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) for formazan crystals and the mitochondrial activity was evaluated by coenzyme Q10 (HPLC) and creatine kinase (chemical kinetics) dosages. The results show that there is an increase in normal cell mitochondrial activity, and inhibition of mitochondrial activity in tumor cells in specific concentration tests. Therefore, it is suggested that atemoya extracts alter the metabolism of normal and tumor cells, thus being a potential biomarker for tumor cells, allowing several benefits to emerge, such as the reduction of side effects from innovative treatments.
    Jean-Claude Lavoie*, Julie Rebeuh, Denise Herzog, Christophe Faure, Therese Rouleau
    Background: The immaturity of glutathione metabolism is believed to explain the oxidative stress observed in premature neonates on total parenteral nutrition [TPN]. Animal studies report that peroxides contaminating TPN induce the low glutathione levels as a consequence of the inhibition of the generation of substrates for its synthesis. We hypothesize that older children receiving long-term TPN have low levels of glutathione with the consequence to have an increased oxidative stress.
    Methods: Total glutathione and oxidative stress markers [hydroperoxides and isoprostane-F2α] were measured in urine, plasma or erythrocytes from 6 children aged 77 ± 24 months treated with TPN for a mean duration of 28 ± 7 months and from 7 control children aged of 87 ± 21 months.
    Results: In the TPN group, glutathione was lower [p<0.01] whereas hydroperoxide and isoprostane-F2α were higher [p<0.01] than in control group. Plasma isoprostane-F2α was negatively correlated with erythrocytes glutathione [r2 = 0.60, p<0.01]. Ascorbate levels were similar in erythrocyte, but higher [p<0.05] in urine of the TPN group.
    Conclusion: Similar to premature infants, oxidative stress is increased in children on long-term TPN. The oxidative stress is associated with low glutathione.
    Short communication
    Sara Schwab, Timothy Xu, Kathleen Ryan, and Nanette Steinle*
    Background: Eating behavior is influenced by genetics and environment, and is associated with many obesity related conditions.
    Objective: We assessed the relationship between self-reported disinhibition scores and insulin resistance assessed during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT).
    Design: The study included 779 volunteers from the Amish Family Diabetes Study; 77 with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, 133 with Impaired Glucose Tolerance [IGT] and 569 with Normal Glucose Tolerance [NGT]. All patients with IGT and NGT completed oral glucose tolerance tests [OGTT], and had insulin levels measured during the OGTT. Volunteers completed the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire to quantify self-perceived disinhibition.
    Conclusions: Higher disinhibition scores are associated with higher fasting insulin levels and insulin area under the curve during an OGTT. These results suggest a highly significant, positive correlation between the eating behavior disinhibition and insulin insensitivity. Treatments aimed at modifying eating behavior may be helpful in mitigating insulin resistance.
    Research Article
    Jorge E. Tartaglione, Alberto E. Alves de Lima, Nora E.Vainstein, Diego Conde, Maria C. La Bruna, Jorge A. Belardi, Gladys C. Rodriguez and Pilar T.Garcia*
    Background: Despite the large body of convincing evidence and the leaner beef cuts now available, controversy over the relationship between red meat consumption and coronary heart disease risk factors continues. Several reports have shown that, as compared with grain-fed beef, pasture-fed beef contains increased concentrations of β-carotene and α- tocopherol, high levels of long chain n-3 PUFAs, a more desirable n-6/n-3 ratio and increased levels of CLA all substances reported to have favourable biological effects on human health.
    Objective: The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of lean beef from three different cattle production systems, pasture-fed beef [P], pasture and grain supplemented-beef [M] and feedlot-beef [F] on anthropometric measurements, serum parameters and fatty acid composition in healthy men and women.
    Design: Forty-eight apparently healthy subjects [24 men and 24 women], were randomly assigned to consume a balanced diet [from a catering service] each of the three beef types for four weeks. Each participant consumed each diet with a period of wash up of 21 days between the different diets. Three groups of 16 subjects [8 men and 8 women] rotated through the three experimental periods.
    Results: In men systolic blood pressure was lower in P [109.8 vs 115.8 mmHg] than in F. The other anthropometric measurements were not affected by the beef type in either sex. However, the three diets caused significant changes from the baseline values of weight, systolic pressure, BMI and PM in both men and women. No significant differences were detected in the serum parameters and fatty acid proportion between the three diets. However, significant differences with the baseline values were found.
    Conclusions: No significant differences were found in the different variables studied between the three experimental diets. However, all the diets significantly affected the baseline values of the variables studied which followed a similar trend but with variable intensity according to the beef diet and sex
    Muhammad Salihu Ibrahım, Yusuf Ibrahim Ibrahım, Zulaliha Gidado Mukhtar, and Fikret Karatas*
    In this study, the amounts of vitamin A, vitamin E, vitamin C, β-carotene, lycopene, ghrelin, reduced and oxidized form of glutathione (GSH, GSSG) with malondialdehyde (MDA) in fresh fruits of Crataegus laevigata plant were determined by using High Performance Liquid Chromatography. The amount of vitamin A, vitamin E, vitamin C, β-carotene, lycopene, ghrelin, GSH, GSSG and MDA in fresh fruits of Crataegus laevigata plant were found to be 0.76 ± 0.08 - 1.14 ± 0.11 µg/g; 0.83 ± 0.10 - 1.17 ± 0.12µg/g; 16.45 ± 1.31 - 50.76 ± 2.02µg/g; 2.88 ± 0.24 - 3.87 ± 0.38 µg/g; 0.44 ± 0.06 - 2.34 ± 0.18 µg/g; 18.96 ± 6.73 - 79.96 ± 12.14 µg/g; 82.25 ± 17.26 - 564.88 ± 81.53µg/g; 118.02 ± 22.39 - 307.79 ± 52.50 µg/g and 24.27 ± 2.81 - 30.69 ± 6.83µg/g, respectively. It can be said that Crataegus laevigata plant fruits are good source of vitamin C, β-carotene, lycopene, ghrelin and glutathione. Generally, Crataegus laevigata is planted as an ornamental plant but these findings suggested that the fruit of this plant might be useful source of antioxidant. The differences in the amount of parameters in the Crataegus laevigata fruit are thought to be caused by the growth medium, climate and environmental conditions.
    Boulos Christa*, Yaghi Nathalie, and Salameh Pascale
    Background: In Lebanon, an Arab Mediterranean country, nutritional status of elderly population was described as pooled results from both genders, underestimating the influence of education on nutritional status in Lebanese rural elderly women.
    Objective: We aimed to study the impact of education and other covariates on nutritional status in Lebanese elderly women.
    Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study included a representative sample of 607 community dwelling elderly women from all rural districts in Lebanon. Data included socio demographic factors, health related characteristics [co morbidities, chronic pain, ADL disabilities etc.], mental health status [5 item GDS, MMS], social isolation [LSNS 6 scale] and variables related to food intake. Nutritional status was assessed through the Mini Nutritional Assessment.
    Results: After identifying significant associated factors in the bivariate analysis, a stepwise multiple logistic regression found a strong and independent relationship between the different levels of education versus illiteracy, and nutritional status [OR: 0.58; 95% CI: 0.35-0.96 and OR: 0.42; 95% CI: 0.21-0.83]. Social isolation, low physical health status, depression, cognitive dysfunction were other significantly associated covariates. Furthermore, women participating in meal preparation were at lower risk of poor nutritional status [OR: 0.30; 95% CI: 0.18-0.50].
    Conclusion: We demonstrated that educational status in women was a strong predictor of poor nutritional status in this representative sample of rural elderly women. We should therefore emphasize on the importance of access to education and information in particular in female population living in rural areas.
    Taylor Szczygiel, Mary Moore, Ryan Pettit-Mee, Amanda Slezsak, and Micah Zuhl*
    The purpose of this study was to examine the affects of 8-weeks low dose (0.09 g/kg/day) oral glutamine supplementation in healthy university-age adults on markers of oxidative and cellular stress. Twenty healthy adults, enrolled as full-time undergraduate students (5 male, 15 female), were separated into glutamine (Gln) or placebo (Pla) groups. Low dose glutamine resulted in higher plasma glutamine and higher serum antioxidant capacity at 4-weeks compared to pre in the glutamine group. In addition, peripheral blood mononuclear cell expression of heat shock stress protein (HSF-1) and inhibitor of the pro-inflammatory nuclear kappa-B alpha (IκB) decreased at 4-weeks compared to the pre time point in the placebo group. Levels did not decrease in the Glutamine group. In conclusion, low dose glutamine may provide short-term protective benefits by increasing antioxidant levels and preserving the heat shock stress system among university students. This may indicate a use for the supplement for students during high stress times (i.e. mid-terms and finals).
    Rosilene Rodrigues Kaizer*, Paula Acosta Maldonado, Eduarda Costa, Marta Maria Medeiros Frescura Duarte, Jessié Martins Gutierres, Vera Maria Morsch and Maria Rosa Chitolina Schetinger
    High fat consumption is a significant risk factor to develop metabolic diseases, leading to chronic inflammatory responses. Atherosclerosis is characterized by the formation of athermanous plaque, where the platelets accumulation can promote the interruption on blood flow. This study evaluates the effect of diets with high fat intake on the purinergic and cholinergic markers in peripheral rats’ tissues. The rats were loaded into 5 groups and they had been receiving the following diets for 3 months: controlled diet, saturated diet, saturated/unsaturated and unsaturated diets. The results show a significant inhibition of overall enzymes activities, mainly after the long-term exposure to saturate and to the saturated/unsaturated diets. The cholesterol, LDL and glucose levels were enhanced in the saturated group. Moreover, the HDL level was significantly lower in rats that took the saturated/unsaturated diet. The inhibition of NTPDase increases the ATP and ADP level that elicits the inflammatory response and the promotion of atherosclerosis. The inhibition of 5’-nucleotidase and AChE leads to an increase of the Adenosine and Acetylcholine (ACh) levels, which may be interpreted as a possible defense mechanism of the organism against the chronic inflammation of the arteries. Thus, we can suggest that the NTPDase, 5’-nucleotidase and AChE may act as an intrinsic control of atherosclerotic lesion and neuro inflammation.
    Ikese Oche*, Okoye Patrice-Anthony, Simon Ubwa, Sunday Adoga, Audu Inegedu, Obande God’s will and Yvonne Akaasah
    A novel infant food was formulated by beneficiating a cereal legume composite prepared from yellow maize, short rice and soybean using egg yolk, crayfish and banana flavour. Simultaneous equation and material balance methods were used to determine the blend proportions with which the cereal-legume composite was prepared. The mineral and vitamin compositions of the formulated food were determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) and Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC) respectively and then statistically compared with the mean compositions of same in two common proprietary formulae sold in the markets and in applicable cases with the recommended daily allowance for infants between 6-59 months. The micronutrient content of the formulated food compared quite favourably with those of the proprietary formulae and in most cases was even higher in the formulated food than in both proprietary formulae. With the exception of copper the micronutrient content per 100g of the formulated food compared adequately with their corresponding RDA’s and the formulated food will more than adequately supply the RDA’s for each mineral nutrient and vitamin in infants between 6-59 months of age if they are fed at least 150g of the formulated food daily. This makes the formulated food an excellent source of micronutrients for infants between 6-59 months as it is remarkably sufficient in terms of micronutrient composition. Oxalate and phytate in the formulated food were found to be 0.78 % and 1.48 % respectively.
    Review Article
    Okorie SU* and Okaka JC
    Young male albino rats (74 -127g) were used to evaluate the nutritional quality of germinated, fermented and dried underutilized legumes: Canavalia ensiformis (jackbean), Mucuna vulgaris and Phaseolus vulgaris (red kidney bean). Six different diets were formulated respectively from the legumes and fed to thirty-six rats, which were divided into six groups of six rats per metabolic cage for 9-day nitrogen balance study in a 12-day study. Three day acclimatization was used during which time the rats were fed the normal rat chow and water ad-libitum. The diets were coded as red kidney bean germinated (48h), fermented (27h) and dried at 57.5°C (RGF 57.5), red kidney bean dried at 65°C (RKD 65), jackbean germinated (87h), fermented (87h) and dried at 57°C (JGF 57.5), jackbean dried at 65°C (JBD 65), Mucuna vulgaris germinated (62h), fermented (62h) and dried at 65°C (MGF 65) and Mucuna vulgaris dried at 65°C (MVD 65). At the end of the nine (9) day experimental feeding with the diets and water ad libitum, the result indicated that diet MVD 65 was most superior in all the performance and protein quality characteristics determined. This was evidenced in the fact that the highest food intake, digested nitrogen, nitrogen intake, weight gain, nitrogen balance and apparent digestibility (AD) of 12.25g, 0.955g, 1.176g, 43.42g, 0.884g and 81.227% were obtained using diet MVD 65. These values were significantly (p<0.05) higher than the values of the other diets. Net protein utilization (NPU) and Biological value (BV) using MGF 65 and RKD 65 diets were high (77.92% and 99.21%) respectively. Absorbed/digested nitrogen and retained nitrogen / nitrogen balance were comparable in values. The result tends to indicate that good quality protein diets can be produced from the mixed legumes.
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