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  • ISSN: 2333-6706
    Volume 6, Issue 1
    Review Article
    Ohaegbulam PO*, Okorie SU, and Ojinnaka MC
    The aim of this work was to evaluate the engineering properties of two selected varieties of African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) seeds – The brown-coated and white testa seed varieties. Physical dimensions (length, width, thickness, weight, volume, amongst other parameters) of the selected test seeds were measured using appropriate devices. Established mathematical formulae were used in the computation of the data generated to deduce several relevant engineering properties of the seeds. The values derived for all parameters are presented in this work. From the results obtained, the mean values for length, width and thickness (all in mm) were generally lower for the white variety than for the brown variety. The average arithmetic and geometric mean diameter values further confirmed this, as was evident from the bigger sizes of the brown seeds compared to the white species. The mean sphericity values for both seeds implied that both seeds were closer to a sphere in shape, though the white seed type had a higher tendency to roll when placed at a particular orientation to improve emptying (as in hopper or conveyor belt/inclined plane platforms). The specific surface and mean surface areas suggested that both seed varieties would fall through a stream of air at the right velocity while lighter/irregularly-shaped chaff/extraneous matter are blown away during pneumatic separation (such as aspiration/winnowing processes) or remain on the belt during pneumatic conveyance. The mean values for volume, bulk density solid density, 1,000-seed mass, unit mass and porosity values indicated that the seeds will not float in water and these values would help to separate unwanted particles from the seeds during wet cleaning on the basis of buoyancy differences. Though, more seeds of the white variety would occupy the same space than the seeds with brown seed coat. The values of angle of repose suggested that the seeds would readily form heaps during collection/packaging and flow out readily during emptying of the holding vessel. The coefficient of static friction on various surfaces (plywood, glass, stainless steel, aluminium, planed wood surface and formica) was indicative of the trend of increased resistance to sliding of the bulk seeds when placed on the respective surfaces. This would be useful in the design of conveying devices like raw materials’ reception plane, processing machine hoppers or agricultural machine (planter) hoppers. All the values generated may be exploited in the design and fabrication of equipment to manage, convey, process, contain or preserve African Yam bean seeds.
    Joanna de Angelis da Costa Barros Gomes, Jailma Almeida-Lima, Ruth Medeiros Oliveira, Gabriel Pereira Fidelis, Dayanne Lopes Gomes, and Hugo Alexandre de Oliveira Rocha*
    The antioxidant activity of aqueous extracts of five edible tropical fruits (Spondias lutea, Hancornia speciosa, Spondias purpurea, Manilkara zapota and Averrhoa carambola) was investigated using different methods. The amount of phenolic compounds was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Extracts showed neither reducing power nor iron chelation (between 0.01 and 2.0 mg/mL). H. speciosa exhibited the highest superoxide scavenging activity (80%, 0.5 mg/mL). However, at high concentrations (8.0 mg/mL) only A. carambola, S. purpurea and S. lutea scavenging 100% of radicals formed. M. zapota and S. purpurea had higher phenolic compound levels and greater OH radical scavenging activity (92%, 2 mg/mL). Antiproliferative activity was assessed with 3T3 fibroblasts and cervical tumor cells (HeLa). The most potent extract was S. purpurea (0.5 mg/mL), which inhibited HeLa cell proliferation by 52%. All extracts showed antioxidant and antiproliferative properties, characterizing them as functional foods.
    Short Communication
    Marinho JD, Menezes KKP, Rodrigues MLMP, and Serquiz AC*
    The chemotherapy or radiotherapy treatment to which children are subjected can often lead to clinical manifestations such as oral mucositis, diarrhea or constipation, as well as vomiting, and nausea. Given this scenario, food intake is affected, undermining nutritional status, quality of life, and the patient survival. The study here in aims to provide functional intake preparations for pediatric oncology patients at a philanthropic hospital, assessing their acceptability for addition to the local menu. The research was performed with 26 patients, both male and female, undergoing chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy treatments. The test was carried out by offering five distinct preparations, each one on a different day, with posterior application the acceptability test, using a mixed hedonic scale. The data collection was performed using the IBM SPSS Statistics 21 software. After this analysis, it was verified that the reduction in food consumption of the cancer patient is multi factorial, being frequently related to consequences of the disease itself. The sensorial aspect of the preparation is often essential for the better acceptance of foods, which aim to arise satisfactory responses through adequate nutrition to the organism. Bearing this in mind, an adequate diet with the necessary nutrients for good nutritional status is fundamental for the clinical prognosis of these patients.
    Judith Adikinyi Khamoni*
    The study considered a diet comprising of infant formula milk, lunch and dinner for eight months infants. Levels of four trace elements namely Cu, Fe, Se and Zn and minerals (Ca, K, Mg and Na) in the commercial infant food from the UK market that was used for lunch and dinner were determined using ICP-MSand ICP-AES respectively. This paper discusses total daily intakes from a diet of infant formula milk, chicken and beef meals with vegetable. Generally, finding showed that the levels of the trace elements and minerals were below the Recommended Nutrient Intakes (RNI). A feeding regime of chicken and vegetable based diet including infant formula milk suggested that the average daily consumptions of calcium, copper, iron, magnesium and sodium were below the Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI). Values above the RNI were suggested in potassium, selenium and zinc by 19 mg/day, 1.4µg/day and 0.1 mg/day respectively. However, the levels were within the Tolerable Upper Limits. In the beef feeding regimen, results suggest that Zn levels were equal to the RNI (5.00 mg/day). All the other trace elements and minerals were below the RNI except selenium whose values were higher by 0.4 µg/100g. In view of the fact that infants have rapid growth requiring more energy leading to a higher rate of food consumption relative to their body weight, they are more suceptibility to consuming higher than recommended nutritional values. In light of these findings it is recommended that the manufacturers include information on the levels of the trace elements and minerals of the commercial foods on the labels.
    Research Article
    Yusufu MI*, John PG, and Ahemen SA
    Post-harvest loss is a very serious problem in developing countries which leads to low income earning of the farmers and food shortage. This is due to the insufficient storage facilities as well as the technical know-how of post-harvest handling from the harvesting period to storage and also lack of proper marketing channel. The aim of this research was to control postharvest loses in watermelon and ginger and also to develop health promoting and acceptable wine using watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) and Ginger (Zingiber officinale). The wine was produced using ratios of 100:00, 95:05, 90:10, 85:15, 80:20, 75:25 watermelon juice: ginger extract designated as sample A-F respectively. The sample from Watermelon juice alone served as the control. Fermentation of the wine was carried out in two phases the primary and secondary phase. During the fermentation process, the pH, specific gravity (SPG) and alcoholic content was monitored on a daily basis. The results of physico-chemical analysis revealed that titrable acidity ranged from 0.04 to 0.10% while pH from 4.76-4.68, total soluble solids (brix level) ranged between 3.5-4.0 0brix, and specific gravity from 1.01-1.04. Vitamin C contents ranged from 1.95-2.85 mg/100g. The alcoholic content of the wine ranged from 2.30-8.50% with sample A (the control) having the highest alcoholic content. Antioxidant assays shows that samples with highest level of ginger extract show stronger antioxidants in general before and after fermentation. The antioxidant assays shows that fermentation improves the antioxidant properties of watermelon juice- ginger extract blends. The results for minerals shows a range 2.79-3.79mg/L,0.06-0.29mg/L, 7.60-27.37mg/L and 0.24-0.66mg/L for Ca, Cu, Fe and Zn respectively. The Zn and Cu contents increased in the wine after fermentation while Fe and Ca decreased. The results shows that the mineral content of the wine increase with increase in ginger. Findings of microbial studies showed the formulated wine is safe for human consumption. Sensory evaluation shows that sample B having the least ginger (5%) was rated highest in colour, taste and general acceptability. The colour ratings decrease from 5.30-5.0 as the level of ginger increases from 10-25% level. The taste ratings also decrease from 4.90 to 4.30 as the level of ginger increases from 10-25% level. The flavor ratings increase as the level of ginger increases in the wine. This research indicates that an acceptable, enhanced physico-chemical and mineral with improved antioxidant properties wine could be produced from blends of watermelon juice and hot water ginger extract.
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