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  • ISSN: 2333-6706
    Volume 6, Issue 1
    Review Article
    Ohaegbulam PO*, Okorie SU, and Ojinnaka MC
    The aim of this work was to evaluate the engineering properties of two selected varieties of African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) seeds – The brown-coated and white testa seed varieties. Physical dimensions (length, width, thickness, weight, volume, amongst other parameters) of the selected test seeds were measured using appropriate devices. Established mathematical formulae were used in the computation of the data generated to deduce several relevant engineering properties of the seeds. The values derived for all parameters are presented in this work. From the results obtained, the mean values for length, width and thickness (all in mm) were generally lower for the white variety than for the brown variety. The average arithmetic and geometric mean diameter values further confirmed this, as was evident from the bigger sizes of the brown seeds compared to the white species. The mean sphericity values for both seeds implied that both seeds were closer to a sphere in shape, though the white seed type had a higher tendency to roll when placed at a particular orientation to improve emptying (as in hopper or conveyor belt/inclined plane platforms). The specific surface and mean surface areas suggested that both seed varieties would fall through a stream of air at the right velocity while lighter/irregularly-shaped chaff/extraneous matter are blown away during pneumatic separation (such as aspiration/winnowing processes) or remain on the belt during pneumatic conveyance. The mean values for volume, bulk density solid density, 1,000-seed mass, unit mass and porosity values indicated that the seeds will not float in water and these values would help to separate unwanted particles from the seeds during wet cleaning on the basis of buoyancy differences. Though, more seeds of the white variety would occupy the same space than the seeds with brown seed coat. The values of angle of repose suggested that the seeds would readily form heaps during collection/packaging and flow out readily during emptying of the holding vessel. The coefficient of static friction on various surfaces (plywood, glass, stainless steel, aluminium, planed wood surface and formica) was indicative of the trend of increased resistance to sliding of the bulk seeds when placed on the respective surfaces. This would be useful in the design of conveying devices like raw materials’ reception plane, processing machine hoppers or agricultural machine (planter) hoppers. All the values generated may be exploited in the design and fabrication of equipment to manage, convey, process, contain or preserve African Yam bean seeds.
    Short Communication
    Marinho JD, Menezes KKP, Rodrigues MLMP, and Serquiz AC*
    The chemotherapy or radiotherapy treatment to which children are subjected can often lead to clinical manifestations such as oral mucositis, diarrhea or constipation, as well as vomiting, and nausea. Given this scenario, food intake is affected, undermining nutritional status, quality of life, and the patient survival. The study here in aims to provide functional intake preparations for pediatric oncology patients at a philanthropic hospital, assessing their acceptability for addition to the local menu. The research was performed with 26 patients, both male and female, undergoing chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy treatments. The test was carried out by offering five distinct preparations, each one on a different day, with posterior application the acceptability test, using a mixed hedonic scale. The data collection was performed using the IBM SPSS Statistics 21 software. After this analysis, it was verified that the reduction in food consumption of the cancer patient is multi factorial, being frequently related to consequences of the disease itself. The sensorial aspect of the preparation is often essential for the better acceptance of foods, which aim to arise satisfactory responses through adequate nutrition to the organism. Bearing this in mind, an adequate diet with the necessary nutrients for good nutritional status is fundamental for the clinical prognosis of these patients.
    Judith Adikinyi Khamoni*
    The study considered a diet comprising of infant formula milk, lunch and dinner for eight months infants. Levels of four trace elements namely Cu, Fe, Se and Zn and minerals (Ca, K, Mg and Na) in the commercial infant food from the UK market that was used for lunch and dinner were determined using ICP-MSand ICP-AES respectively. This paper discusses total daily intakes from a diet of infant formula milk, chicken and beef meals with vegetable. Generally, finding showed that the levels of the trace elements and minerals were below the Recommended Nutrient Intakes (RNI). A feeding regime of chicken and vegetable based diet including infant formula milk suggested that the average daily consumptions of calcium, copper, iron, magnesium and sodium were below the Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI). Values above the RNI were suggested in potassium, selenium and zinc by 19 mg/day, 1.4µg/day and 0.1 mg/day respectively. However, the levels were within the Tolerable Upper Limits. In the beef feeding regimen, results suggest that Zn levels were equal to the RNI (5.00 mg/day). All the other trace elements and minerals were below the RNI except selenium whose values were higher by 0.4 µg/100g. In view of the fact that infants have rapid growth requiring more energy leading to a higher rate of food consumption relative to their body weight, they are more suceptibility to consuming higher than recommended nutritional values. In light of these findings it is recommended that the manufacturers include information on the levels of the trace elements and minerals of the commercial foods on the labels.
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