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  • ISSN: 2333-6706
    Volume 6, Issue 2
    Mini Review
    Chyn Boon Wong and Jin-zhong Xiao*
    The initial colonization and early development of the gut microbiome during infancy are important to lifelong human health. Breast milk is the gold standard in infant nutrition. In addition to providing a source of nutrition for infants, breast milk has also been shown to play a role in the assembly of a well-balanced and healthy infant gut microbiome, often dominated by Bifidobacterium species. Bifidobacteria are ubiquitous inhabitants of the gastrointestinal tract of mammals that are perceived as safe, beneficial microorganisms. Generally, bifidobacterial species that are commonly found in human intestines are referred to as human-residential bifidobacteria (HRB). Among HRB, infant-type HRB represent the major members of infant gut microbiota during breastfeeding period. It is increasingly evident that breast milk functions to orchestrating the establishment of bifidobacteria in infant gut. In this review, we aim to discuss about the functional role of the components in breast milk, particularly human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) as well as the antimicrobial compounds, lysozyme, in the selection of the species of infant-type HRB as the exclusive members in infant gut microbiome.
    Research Article
    Yusufu MI*, Onu EA, and Ahure D
    The effects of malted fermented sorghum on the quality characteristics of cowpea-cassava danwake were investigated as technological strategies for improving the quality of danwake flour. Separate preliminary sensory evaluation was conducted to determine the acceptable level of sorghum in cowpea-cassava mixture. The preliminary sensory evaluation showed 30% level of sorghum in 50:50 cowpea-cassava mixtures. Five samples- non sorghum sample (NSS), non-malted non fermented sorghum sample (NMNFSS), fermented sorghum sample (FSS), malted sorghum sample (MSS) and malted fermented sorghum sample (MFSS) were prepared for the studies. The samples were subjected to functional, pasting and sensory properties using standard methods. The functional properties shows significant (p<0.05) increases for water absorption capacity (1.175-1.900g/g), Swelling capacity (36.00-39.00%) gelation concentration (16.00-18.00%) and decrease in bulk density (0. 725-0.574g/cm3). The pasting properties showed peak viscosity (PV) ranged from 1231 RVU in malted sample (MSS) to 1248 in non-sorghum sample (NSS). The trough viscosity (TV) ranged from 1167 in malted sorghum danwake to 1374 in non-sorghum danwake. Final viscosity (FV) of danwake samples ranged from 1853 in (MSS) to 2050RVA in fermented sorghum sample ((FSS).The breakdown viscosity (BDV) ranged from 30RVA in NMNFS to 64RVA in MFSS. The MFSS had the next lowest value of 40RVA. The setback viscosity ranged from 666RVA in non-sorghum sample (NSS) to 797 RVA in non-malted non fermented sample (NMNFS). The pasting temperatures (80.65-86.40°C) were generally low in all the samples and significant differences observed among the samples. The NSS had the lowest pasting temperature 80.65°C. The pasting time in this study ranged from 5.20min in MFS-5.60 min in MSS and significant differences were observed among the samples. Sensory evaluation shows that substitution of malted fermented sorghum in cowpea-cassava mixture improves the appearance, taste, flavor and overall acceptability of cowpea-cassava danwake. The study indicates that substitution of malted fermented sorghum improves the functional and pasting properties and sensory quality of cowpea-cassava danwake.
    Esther Perez-Torrero*, Mario Enrique Rodriguez-Garcia and Sinuhe Salvador Zamarron-Alvarez
    Male rats control (C) and food restricted (R) feeding with different decrement percentage of daily intake, during gestation and, during lactating period rats were maintained with access to milk only 12 hrs. At 9 week of age rats were sacrificed under profound anesthesia and were submit to 3-point bending mechanical test like indicators of bone strength, after that the samples were observed to scanning electron microscope. The restriction diets during perinatal period have long lasting effects in the general physiology of the rat. Neither, the three-point bending mechanical properties, nor the tensile mechanical properties differed significantly between the groups, while there was a trend towards decreasing bending mechanical properties in restricted diet group. It was demonstrated that compared to control group, restricted diet group produces a significant decrease in body weight, femur weight and length. The C group was stronger as measured by three-point bending test and more resistant compared to control group. Additionally, the microscopy result shows that the general microstructure was dismissed in the R group and the bungles of collagen fibers are sparser relative to control group. The result provides evidence to adaptive changes of bone particularly the bungle collagen fibers in young expose to sever gestation food restriction and can contribute to detrimental of the bone function and induce physiopathology and metabolic bone disease in adulthood.
    Drammeh L*, Girgih AT, and Ahemen SA
    Processed fruits and vegetables have been long considered to have lower nutritional value than their fresh commodities due to the loss of vitamins during processing. Thirty-six kilograms of freshly harvested tomatoes (UTC variety) were purchased from a Kaduna Central Market. Three pre-treatments were used namely: 0.2g of potassium metabisulphite (K2S2O) per 100 g of tomato, blanching at 60°C for 1 min and control (untreated) samples. Freeze, hybrid-solar and oven drying were employed and processed in powder. Antioxidant activities and free amino acids have been evaluated. All the tomato powders showed better antioxidant activities than the synthetic standards. In terms of the pre-treatments employed, the antioxidant activities of the powders were observed to be in the order of potassium metabisulphite>blanched>control. As for drying methods the order was as observed as follows freeze>oven>solar-hybrid dried. branched chain amino acids (BCAAs) content in tomato powders ranged from 1.327 to 1.583% with the solar-hybrid dried sample pre-treated with potassium metabisulphite has the highest (1.583%) compared to the lowest value (1.316%) in the freeze dried sample pre-treated with potassium metabisulphite. Like was with the content of BCAA, Hydrophobic amino acids (HAA) content was highest (3.905%) in the K2S2O treated hybrid-solar dried tomato powder sample whereas the lowest value (3.393%) was recorded by the K2S2O treated oven dried sample. The Negatively charged amino acid (NCAA) were the most abundant amino acids in the tomato powder samples ranging in content from 5.272 to 7.949% with the control freeze dried sample having the highest content (7.949%) and the K2S2O treated oven dried sample the least (5.272%). Therefore it was concluded that the antioxidant and amino acid characteristics of UTC tomato powder is significantly affected by different pretreatment and drying methods. This information may have a significant impact on consumers’ food selection by increasing their consumption of tomato powder to reduce the risks of chronic diseases.
    Ana Paula Fruet, David Gerrard, Jose Laerte Nörnberg, and Amilton de Mello*
    Fortifying foods with oil from marine sources enhances the dietary availability of omega-3 fatty acids to consumers. Although the inclusion of omega-3s in foods has been studied for years, few research considered evaluating sensory attributes of beef enhanced with EPA (Eicosapentaenoic acid) and DHA (Docosahexanoic acid) from marine sources. Krill oil has recently emerged as a novel source of omega-3s, which manufacturers claim that it does not generate fishy aftertaste due to higher oxidative stability when compared to fish oils. This study tested the null hypothesis that enhancing nutritional values of beef by incorporating krill oil in the lean does not affect flavor when beef is stored under vacuum conditions, and color and lipid stability when steaks are displayed packaged in O2 permeable film. Strip loin steaks were enhanced with 47 mg (32 mg of EPA and 15 mg of DHA, E1), and with 94 mg (64 mg of EPA and 30 mg of an EPA and DHA from krill oil diluted in extra virgin olive oil. Steaks enhanced with the highest concentration showed improved tenderness when compared to control steaks (P = 0.01). Overall, enhanced steaks had higher off-flavor intensity when compared to control steaks whereas fishy and metallic were the most predominant off-flavor descriptors. As levels of enhancement increased, greater lipid oxidation on steaks was observed (P = 0.002). Enhancing beef with omega-3 fatty acids from krill oil led to detrimental effects on flavor and other quality attributes.
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