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  • ISSN: 2333-6706
    Volume 9, Issue 1
    Research Article
    Ubwa ST, Audu SI, Ajonye SA*, Amua QM and Ikese OC
    Soya bean yoghurt produced from soya milk using standard procedures was flavoured with 0%, 5%, 10% and 15% Julie mango pulp and labeled SC (Control), F1, F2, and F3 respectively. The results from the analysis with a significant difference (p<0.05) showed that the pH of the soya bean yoghurt ranged from 3.40 to 3.50. The scores obtained for sensory attributes (colour, smell, taste, sourness and flavor) of the Julie mango pulp flavoured soya bean yoghurt were compared with that of the plain soya bean yoghurt sample. The sensory evaluation result showed a mean score of 5.00 as overall acceptability for sample F3 for all sensory attributes (colour, smell, taste, sourness and flavor) thereby making it the most preferred sample by the panelists. Sample F2 had an overall acceptability mean score of 4.20 for all sensory attributes making it second in overall preference. Sample F1 has an overall acceptability mean score of 4.00, while Sample SC was the least preferred with an overall acceptability mean score of 2.80.
    Reina Doi, Minatsu Kobayashi*, Kohei Ogawa, Naho Morisaki, Chik Seung Jwa, and Takeo Fujiwara
    Introduction: Dietary habits during pregnancy affect several pregnancy outcomes. Despite the recent attention on dietary assessments, such as dietary quality and dietary pattern extraction, studies on the validity of dietary patterns in pregnant women are few. In this study, we examined the food intake of pregnant women using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and dietary records (DR) to identify and assess the validity of their dietary patterns.
    Methods: A total of 194 women, 8–15 weeks pregnant, who visited the National Center for Child Health and Development from January to December 2011 participated. Principal component analyses were performed on 27 food groups obtained from the FFQ and DR. Spearman correlation coefficients were calculated to investigate the validity of dietary patterns extracted from the FFQ and DR. Additionally, tertiles were cross-tabulated based on the principal component scores of the dietary patterns, and category concordance rates were calculated.
    Results: The first dietary pattern extracted from the FFQs was named the “balanced type,” and the second was named “fruit-intake type”. In particular, the “balanced type” dietary pattern showed correlation coefficients similar to those of previous studies, indicating good validity. As for category concordance, the number of women classified into the same category for the first and second dietary pattern was 92 (47.4%) and 77 (39.7%), respectively.
    Conclusion: This study suggested the usefulness of the FFQ in extracting dietary patterns. Thus, clarifying the relationships between the diet and health status of pregnant women and birth outcomes.
    Original Research Article
    Alan M Preston*, Cindy A Rodriguez, Sona Rivas-Tumanyan, and Marianna Preston
    Commercial weight-loss organizations gross billions annually, yet few offer an objective measure of diet quality and/or uniformity of day-to-day nutrient intake. The Healthy Eating Index (HEI), a scoring system to evaluate a set of foods, is ideally suited to provide such a measure. Our objective is to determine HEI scores for two typical meal plans from manufacturer's manuals and evaluate the nutritional quality and consistency. Meal plans to be used are basically: low fat, high carbohydrate (MP 1) and high fat, low carbohydrate (MP 2). Five randomly chosen meal plans were selected from the manufacturer's manuals which list complete recipes for all daily meals and supplements. Nutrient content will be determined using the Nutrition Data System for Research (NDSR). HEI component values and scores will be converted with SAS software. These results will be “graded' on a scale of 0-100 for diet quality. Average daily HEI scores will be compared for uniformity and the five-day average and standard deviation calculated. A random numbers table was used to select 5 of 21 meal plans. For monitoring daily intakes, the analytical method used for HEI was population ratio for the means. MP 1 had an HEI score of 87, classified as “good.” MP 2 had an HEI score of 50, classified as “poor.” MP 1 complied with consistency of nutrients having a day-to-day variation of 2 HEI points. MP 2 was less consistent with a day-to-day variation of 8 HEI points. We conclude that HEI scores allow evaluation of nutritional quality as well as determining uniformity of nutrient intake, both of which are currently unavailable to dieters. This information could influence the choice of meal plans for dieters and manufacturers might consider incorporation into their promotional literature.
    Review Article
    Milkesa Feyera*
    Antinutrients are phenolic compounds in crops that have a capability of binding essential nutrients into complexes and making them unavailable in both human and animal diets. Phenolic compounds, mainly phytic acid, condensed tannins, oxalate and trypsin inhibitors are common antinutrients in sorghum. Malting and Fermentation are an effective and potential biochemical process for the reduction of anti-nutritional factors in sorghum flour to safe level. Considerable amounts of phytate, condensed tannin, and oxalate and trypsin inhibitor from sorghum flour were significantly reduced as germination period elongated. The decreased antinutrients in sorghum have contributed to leaching of water soluble phenolic compounds and activated enzyme activities during malting. Reduction of tannins, oxalate, trypsin inhibitor and phytic acid content in sorghum increased with an increase in fermentation time. The reduction is as a result of exogenous and endogenous enzymes, microbial degradation and optimum pH conditions formed during fermentation. Consequently, Malted and fermented sorghum flour resulted in improved nutritive value and sensory characteristics of sorghum flour.
    Stephen Ojo Olorunfemi*
    Introduction: Obesity is a global public health problem, a common health disorders in industrialized countries but now becoming increasingly prevalent in developing world.
    This disease has long been topic of preconceived notion and dishonour in the society but currently the public perception is slowly shifting; unfortunately many people half of which are healthcare professionals still assume that obesity is the individual's fault solely resulting from eating too much with little activities. It is well documented that a person is no more at fault for developing obesity than they are at fault for developing other clinical disorder such as high blood pressure; an obese individual therefore deserves the same respect and compassion among healthcare and the society as whole like other patient at our various healthcare institution.
    The America Medical Association and the other healthcare experts acknowledge that obesity is far more complex than what it was previously assumed to be, and that it was no longer a personal option but a disease caused by complex interplay by the individual genetic, environment and many other related factors. Despite progress made in the management of obesity, its prevalence continues to increase sharply making it a public health pandemic that need urgent intervention. Several chronic disorder have been shown to have strong association with obesity , in order word the risk of developing this co-morbidities rises exponentially with increasing levels of obesity over 30 kg/m2 basal metabolic index.
    In summary therefore, global awareness about obesity like those of Covid-19 Pandemic is a must in our society and communities in order to provide the essential and early interventions required.
    Review Article
    Federico Cacciapuoti*
    Folic acid is a water soluble vitamin of B group. Folate is the generic name for B9 vitamin. This is present in some common nutriments (such as grains, cereals). Its deficiency in the diet can cause several health problems. In pregnant women, adequate folate amount is important for protect against, some congenital heart defects (CHD), neural tube defects (NTDs), or oro-facial clefts (OFC). Its serum-deficiency can be responsible for megaloblastic anemia (perniciosous), while congenital or acquired lack of folate can induce a reduced homocysteine (Hcy) serum levels, responsible for some detrimental conditions charged to cardiovascular or neurologic system and can favor an anomalous cellular replication (tumor). But, its role in the cancers' beginning is uncertain. In fact, while some studies report that folate seems to promote the initiation and progression of certain tumours. Others refer on dual role in the malignancies, respectively in the initiation (protective) and progression and metastatization (easing). Therefore, the folate-supplementation is useful since it is optional, but foods' fortification with folate isn't useful always, since the growing's enrichment with folate could be dangerous.
    Research Article
    De Wijk RA, Zandstra EH, Visser H, van Dijk BPM, Meijboom S, and Vingerhoeds MH
    Current dietary patterns are often sub-optimal from a health and/or an ecological perspective. Changing dietary patterns is desirable, but difficult because of the persistence of food habits. Food habits are especially strong in breakfasting. This study explores two strategies for dietary behavioural change during breakfast: stacking, where a food component is added to an existing food habit, and swapping, where one food component is replaced by another one. Ninety-one participants (72 females, 19 males) adjusted their daily breakfast habits for four weeks by either adding a healthy food component (apple) to their existing breakfast or by swapping their less- sustainable dairy product for a more sustainable plant-based product (soy milk or soy yoghurt). Participant's choice and liking of the breakfast was monitored daily with short questionnaires, whereas other information was collected weekly using more extensive questionnaires.
    The results showed that both swapping and stacking strategies were equally effective during the 4-week study period (compliance>94%). During the study period liking for all three products increased initially but levelled off after 2 weeks for apples and soy yoghurt, whereas liking for soy milk continued to increase (p<0.05). All products were liked better by participants who scored relatively low on the HTAS reward and pleasure dimensions. The suitability of soy milk as breakfast component increased during the study period, whereas the suitability of the other products was either stable (apple) or decreased (soy yoghurt). The strength of the breakfast habit increased after the first week for apple and soy milk and decreased for soy yoghurt, signalling a growing integration of apple and soy milk in the existing breakfast habit. Breakfasts with apple triggered more positive emotions after 3 weeks than the two breakfasts with soy products.
    Four weeks after the end of the study period, voluntary compliance with the products dropped to 26% for soy milk and to 15%-18% for apple and soy yoghurt. The results suggest that a long-lasting breakfast modification requires 1) a relatively small modification whereby one item is replaced by another item that serves the same function (e.g., replacing cow milk by soy milk), 2) a breakfast item that is increasingly liked over repeated exposure, and 3) does not require additional preparation. These findings provide a good basis for further research into consumer's food habits, how they evolve and change, to ultimately facilitate development of new sustainable food products that better fit in existing and new habits.
    Case Report
    Kathleen Carr* and Katherine Truscott
    Folic acid is a water soluble vitamin of B group. Folate is the generic name for B9 vitamin. This is present in some common nutriments (such as grains, cereals). Its deficiency in the diet can cause several health problems. In pregnant women, adequate folate amount is important for protect against, some congenital heart defects (CHD), neural tube defects (NTDs), or oro-facial clefts (OFC). Its serum-deficiency can be responsible for megaloblastic anemia (perniciosous), while congenital or acquired lack of folate can induce a reduced homocysteine (Hcy) serum levels, responsible for some detrimental conditions charged to cardiovascular or neurologic system and can favor an anomalous cellular replication (tumor). But, its role in the cancers' beginning is uncertain. In fact, while some studies report that folate seems to promote the initiation and progression of certain tumours. Others refer on dual role in the malignancies, respectively in the initiation (protective) and progression and metastatization (easing). Therefore, the folate-supplementation is useful since it is optional, but foods' fortification with folate isn't useful always, since the growing's enrichment with folate could be dangerous.
    Jozélio Freire de Carvalho*
    Objective: To describe a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and obesity who was successfully treated by nutraceuticals and a gluten-milk-sugar-free diet.
    Material and methods: Case report.
    Results and Discussion:
    Case report: A 37-year-old female patient with an unmarked past medical history was diagnosed as SLE and methotrexate 20mg/week, prednisolone 60mg/day, and monthly injection betamethasone depot were initiated. After this treatment, she gained 36 kg. The lactose tolerance test was positive. We suspended the corticoid injection, increased vitamin D3, and added omega-3, vitamin C, N-acetyl cysteine, 5-hydroxytryptamine, thiamine, and pyridoxine. Dysbiosis was treated. A gluten-milk-sugar–free diet and low salt intake were suggested. After 3 months, she returned, feeling much better; she reduced 18kg in the period. She stopped propranolol, and prednisolone was tapered off. Currently, two years later, the patient is asymptomatic, SLEDAI=0, using only hydroxychloroquine and vitamin D, she keeps a gluten-milk-sugar-free diet, and her weight is 63kg.
    Conclusion: This case illustrates an interesting case of a patient with lupus and obesity that was successfully treated by a gluten-milk-sugar-free diet and nutraceuticals. It may be an alternative therapeutic option for these patients.
    Research Article
    Rakhshan Ahmad, Almaz Zaki, Neha Sami, Durdana Yasin, Samreen Fatima, Syed Tauqeer Anwer, and Tasneem Fatma*
    Flavonoids are low molecular weight plant secondary metabolites having polyphenolic structure and are associated with plant cell stress tolerance, antioxidant properties and detoxification potential. Recently, flavonoids have gained commercial applications in the field of nutraceutical, pharmaceutical, medicinal, and cosmetic industries. This has compelled the scientist to look for good, high yielding, low cost bioresources. Therefore, in present study Spirulina CPCC-695 flavonoid was investigated for its bioactivities. HPLC-MS analysis of the flavonoid revealed 2 prominent peaks, identified as quercetin and rutin. The purified flavonoid depicted satisfactory α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition activity with IC50 = 112.43 and 130.68 µg/ml, respectively along with considerable anti-inflammatory activity (IC50 = 40.14 ± 0.14 µg/ml). Among DPPH, ABTS, NOR and PM antioxidant activity the sample showed highest activity in ABTS assay (IC50 = 40.12 ± 0.10 µg/ml). Inhibition of hemolysis and thrombosis (1.80% and 81.46%) with 250 μg/ml suggested its safe use for human consumption. The findings of the present study suggested that Spirulina CPCC-695 may be used as a promising aquatic renewable source of flavonoids for pharmaceutical and nutraceutical applications.
    Jodie Bartle*, Elise Alexander, Natalie T Whitehead, and Heather Gilbertson
    Background: Nutrition support during the acute phase post allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is required to optimise short- and long-term outcomes for children. An algorithm was developed and evaluated to assist clinicians to make objective and consistent enteral feeding decisions.
    Methods: The algorithm was evaluated on all patients who underwent allogeneic HSCT treatment between November 2017 - February 2019.
    Results: Of the 48 patients, 43 had a nasogastric tube (NGT) inserted, of which 36 patients received a hydrolysed peptide-based formula, 5 patients received a whole protein formula only and 2 patients were fed an amino acid-based formula. Parenteral nutrition (PN) was used in 41 of the patients. Eleven did not have an NGT in-situ at the commencement of HSCT. Of the remaining 37 patients, 26 followed the algorithm and 11 patients did not comply. The group of patients who did not follow the algorithm had the longest median length of stay (LOS) of 72 days. Patients receiving only EN had the lowest median LOS of 39 days. The two groups that reported better weight outcomes were those who followed the algorithm and those who were fully EN fed.
    Conclusions: Effective use of the HSCT feeding algorithm indicated improved patient outcomes for children undergoing HSCT, with better weight outcomes and reduced LOS. Recommendations to improve the efficacy and compliance of the algorithm include regular education/input to the oncology medical teams to better understand objective thresholds for EN and PN commencement.
    Raquel A. Borba, Bruna M. Padilha, Thaysa BC Brandão, Marcela B. Veiros, Vanuska L. da Silva, and Manuela M. Jomori*
    Background: Cooking skills have been considered a strategic component for the healthy eating (HE) promotion around the world. In Brazil, the Brazilian Cooking Skills Questionnaire (BCSQ) was translated and validated with university students. However, there is not a validated classification for the Brazilian version that determines high or low levels of CS and healthy or unhealthy eating. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to establish and validate the rating of the levels of CS and HE of the BQCS’ answers options.
    Methodology: Content validation was used to rate 5 answer options as high level of CS (HCH) or low level (LCS) as well as HE or unhealthy eating for 17 items in an online form. Fourteen experts (nutrition and gastronomy fields) participated in content validation. The percentage of agreement with the expert panel was calculated based on the parameter ≥90% for HCS or HE.
    Results: There was agreement ≥90% in 8 items for HCS (3 answers) and LCS (9 answers). The same degree of agreement was obtained in 11 items for HE (13 answers) and unhealthy eating (7 answers). These answers can serve as a reference to rate the level of CS and healthy eating in the BCSQ. Agreement between 70% and <90% was found in 15 items for HCS (16 responses), LCS (22 responses), healthy eating (12 responses) and unhealthy eating (20 responses).
    Principal conclusions: This study rated the level of CS and HE, supporting the establishment of BCSQ cutoff points. Further studies can use this approach.
    Research Article
    Zachary Scott Vrobel, Madelyn Jayne Bradley, Hanchu Dai, and Shasha Zheng*
    Background: The overall obesity rates in the United States have been increasing but adolescent rates have been gaining momentum at an alarming rate compared to other age groups. However, these statistics consider the United States population as a whole and fail to recognize ethnic minority groups such as Native Americans who have adolescent obesity rates 12.9% above the 2015 national average. This study analyzed the dietary vitamin intake values of Native American adolescents in relation to their body fat mass categories.
    Methods: Our study’s population was drawn from grades 9 through 12 and consisted of 183 Native American adolescents ages 14-18, representing 43 tribes across the USA. Dietary intake data was obtained using the Harvard School of Public Health Youth Adolescent Questionnaire (HSPHYAQ), a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire that estimates macronutrients and micronutrients from foods in the participants’ diet. The completed surveys were prepared for scanning by The Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health Nutrition Department.
    Results: All body fat mass categories were deficient in vitamins D, E, K, B4, B5 & B9. Obese females were shown to be generally more deficient than normal females.
    Conclusion: Within the Native American population in the United States, adolescents were found to have micronutrient deficiencies and higher rates of obesity compared to national figures.
    Impact Statement: Conducted amongst a population group with higher-than-average rates of child and adolescent obesity, this study discovered that there were only four vitamins in which all BMI groups met the adequate dietary intake for, meaning that even the normal weight range group often had an inadequate dietary vitamin intake.
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