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  • ISSN: 2578-3203
    Current Issue
    Volume 1, Issue 1
    Editorial
    Edith Lahner* and Bruno Annibale
    Fiber intake has been linked to bowel health and disease, since fibers, as an integral part of fruits and vegetables or as an added ingredient in foods or diet supplements, are able to change or modulate at least some portion of the gut microbiota composition [1].
    Research Article
    Florence Galtier*, Giacomo Gastaldi, Thibaud Mura, Ariane Sultan, Christophe Piot, Jean-Paul Cristol, Valerie Macioce, Denis Mariano-Goulart, Eric Renard, Anne-Marie Dupuy, and Antoine Avignon
    Aim: Metformin is the first-line treatment in type 2 diabetic patients. However, it may raise homocystein levels through vitamin B12 deficiency, which might adversly affects its alleged cardiovascular advantages. In this study, we investigated the association between metformin-associated vitamin B12 deficiency and the occurrence of silent myocardial ischemia and hematological abnormalities in type 2 diabetes.
    Methods: This hospital-based cross-sectional study evaluated 798 asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes and at least one cardiovascular risk factor. Biological and clinical parameters were compared first between the 497 metformin-treated patients and the 301 metformin-free patients, and second between metformin users with and without vitamin B12 deficiency. Outcomes included vitamin B12 deficiency (<150 pmol/l), hyperhomocysteinemia (>15 μmol/l), anemia, macrocytosis and silent myocardial ischemia (positive stress myocardial perfusion imaging).
    Results: Mean diabetes duration of the whole sample was 14.3 ± 9.5 years. Crude prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency was 12.5% in metformin-treated patients and 6.1% in metformin free patients (p<0.01). The homocystein level was not increased in metformin users, but among them it was higher in vitamin B12 deficient patients. In both univariate and multivariate analyses, metformin-associated vitamin B12 deficiency was not related to increased risks of hyperhomocysteinemia, silent myocardial ischemia, or to the combined endpoint of macrocytosis and anemia.
    Conclusion: This large cross-sectional study confirms that vitamin B12 deficiency is more common among metformin users, but does not suggest a detrimental effect of metformin on silent myocardial ischemia nor on hematological abnormalities, even though such effects cannot be excluded.
    Greta Noordenbos* and Zoila Van Geest
    Objectives: The purpose of the current study was to assess whether eating disorders(ED) patients had higher self-criticism and more experiences with hearing a critical inner voice than healthy controls and whether the Body Mass Index (BMI)is related to hearing critical inner voices.
    Method: Using a cross-sectional case-control design, 130 ED patients and 59 healthy controls completed a questionnaire with the Forms of Self-criticizing/Attacking and Self-reassuring Scale, the Psychotic Symptom Rating Scales and The Beliefs about Voices Questionnaire. Mann Whitney U tests and correlations were used to test the hypothesis.
    Results: ED patients had significant higher levels of self-criticism and heard more often inner critical voices compared to the healthy controls. The lower the BMI the more often critical inner voices were heard.
    Discussion: To find out whether self-criticism and a low BMI are a risk factor for hearing inner critical voices prospective research is necessary.
    Silva C* and Manzano Fischer P
    Meat consumption is increasing as global diets change with accompanying environmental and health concerns. Meat production involves the use of antibiotics and additives to promote weight gain and to avoid infectious diseases in livestock; antibiotic resistance is a major concern, as many producers place profit over human and environmental safety. The environmental footprint of producing meat goes from water pollution to deforestation, greenhouse gases, use of energy and fossil fuels. A reduction of meat consumption, particularly beef, can benefit the environment by reducing carbon emissions, pollution, habitat and biodiversity loss, also benefit human health by reducing risks associated to the consumption of meat and meat products. To achieve this goal, it is necessary to consider individual and cultural differences, and to investigate meat consumption drivers and beliefs. Efficient and effective interventions can be designed and applied to target groups, not to the general population. It seems more feasible to promote an informed substitution of meat with plant-based diets instead of seeking to reduce consumption itself.
    Monica G. Giroli*, Federica Laguzzi, Manuela Amato, Patrizia Rise, Lorenzo Vigo, Alice Bonomi, Fabrizio Veglia, Jose Pablo Werba, and Elena Tremoli
    Objective: Fatty acids (FA) influence lipoprotein levels and take part in metabolic pathways of inflammation and thrombosis, potentially representing a risk marker or an emerging cardiovascular risk factor. The purpose of this study was to search for independent predictors of blood fatty acid distribution in subjects with and without coronary heart disease (CHD).
    Methods: In this case-control study, 179 patients with CHD and 155 healthy age- and gender- frequency matched subjects were included. Clinical variables (anthropometric data, traditional risk factors, current drug therapies) and life habits (diet by EPIC food frequency questionnaire, smoke, physical activity) were compared, between CHD patients and controls in univariate analysis. Clinical features that differed significantly were included in a multivariate linear regression analysis to assess their independent association with levels of blood fatty acid types and classes (assessed by gas chromatography).
    Results: a) Fish intake was associated positively with n-3 and negatively with n-6 FA; b) coronary disease was associated positively with total saturated FA, C16:0 and C24:0, and negatively with C16:1n-7, C20:3n-6, C20:3n-9, and estimated Δ9 stearoyl-CoA desaturase (16:1n7/16:0 ratio); c) statins use was associated negatively with C18:2n-6 and C18:3n-3, and positively with C18:3n-6, C20:4n-6, the estimated Δ6 desaturase (C18 :3n-6/C18 :2n-6 ratio), C20:4n-6/C18:2n-6, C20:5n-3/C18:3n-3 and C22:6n-3/C18:3n-3 ratios.
    Conclusions: The blood fatty acid distribution is associated, besides with diet quality, with the CHD status and with statin utilization, possibly in relation to a distinct fatty acid metabolism in patients prone to CHD and to pleiotropic effects of statins beyond LDL-C lowering.
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