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  • ISSN: 2578-3203
    Early Online
    Volume 2, Issue 1
    Edith Lahner* and Gloria Galli
    Osteoporosis is defined as a systemic skeletal disorder with reduced bone mass density (BMD) and micro-architectural deterioration associated with higher bone fragility and fracture risk. In contrast, in osteopenia the BMD is also reduced, but without a significantly increased risk of bone fractures [1]. Common risk factors and conditions associated with osteoporosis and osteopenia are menopausal state, increased alcohol intake, smoking habit, previous bone fractures and chronic use of drugs potentially affecting bone metabolism (such as corticosteroids and SSRI) [1]. Some reports have linked the chronic use of proton pump inhibitors to an increased risk of bone fractures [2], potentially including also this class of drugs amongst risk factors for osteoporosis..
    Research Article
    Ayoub Al Jawaldeh, Carla El Mallah, and Omar Obeid*
    Sugar intake was reported to be associated with the increase in body weight and adiposity as well as several non-communicable diseases (NCDs). This relationship has highlighted the importance of reducing sugar consumption among all populations, especially those who experience nutrition and dietary transitions. The Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) was described to have the highest increment of sugar intake over the past few decades, and this paralleled increased rates of obesity, dental and oral health problems, and others NCDs. The WHO – EMRO developed a very strict regional policy to reduce sugar intake, which requires a major change in food intake patterns. In brief, sugar supply (kg/year or energy %) in EMR seems to be relatively close to that of Europeans and Americans and this is further compounded by a massive intake of refined carbohydrates that mainly consist of milled cereals, specifically rice and wheat (double that of EU and America). Thus, recommendations should address both sugar and refined carbohydrate for fruitful results. This review discusses sugar recommendations, availability and intake as well as other sugar-related topics in countries of the EMR. It is always believed that life becomes sweeter without adding sugar!
    Review Article
    Salim Shakur*, Sharmin Afroze, and Salomee Shakur
    Marasmus is a form of severe malnutrition in children mostly occurring in developing countries. It is an important cause of less than 5 mortality and morbidity in developing countries. Due to energy and protein deficiency the child’s fat and muscles are reduced significantly resulting in severe wasting and only skin and bone becomes visible. Marasmic child may develop edema called marasmic-kwashiorkor. Inadequate dietary intake of protein and energy rich diet due to poverty or lack of nutrition knowledge, inadequate mother and child health practice, poor health infrastructure, low birth weight and suffering frequently from various diseases are the important causes of marasmus. Marasmic children are vulnerable to various complications including various infectious disease, diarrhoea, hypoglycaemia, hypothermia, micronutrient deficiency (vitamin A, zinc, copper, iron etc.). Marasmic children must be treated appropriately to prevent morbidity and mortality. Forty case of management of marasmus is in important cause of treatment failure and consequently case fatality. Marasmic children without complication can be managed by community based management. While marasmic with complication were death rate are very high should be managed preferably at facility treatment at felicity based management comprises 7-steps of inpatient care (stabilization phase) and after that child can be transfer to community based care. In community children are given therapeutic food and routine medicine to treat simple medical condition at an outpatient community based center. Appropriate case management of marasmus by standard protocolized management with or without complication can reduces case fatality and improves health status marasmic children.
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