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  • ISSN: 2333-6447
    Volume 5, Issue 2
    Short Communication
    Don Minckler*
    Traditional surgical methods in adults with open-angle glaucomas in which medical and or laser therapy fail include trabeculectomy with adjunctive anti-fibrotics or aqueous shunts. In pediatric cases, goniotomy, trabeculotomy or shunts are employed. While often effective methods to transiently control intraocular pressures, all these surgeries are relatively destructive to ocular anatomy and fraught with complications including rapid failure, conjunctival scarring, and especially wound leaks in adults receiving adjunctive anti-fibrotics during or after trabeculectomy, of great concern due to risk of late infection. New and evolving methods of minimally invasive glaucoma surgery (MIGS) are likely to greatly simplify glaucoma surgery with equivalent or satisfactoryintraocular pressure (IOP) control and far fewer complications. The so-far FDA approved procedures include Trabectome (NeoMedix 2004), and iStent (Glaukos Corporation 2012). Other devices under development include the AquaSys Implant (Allergan) and the CyPass MicroStent (Transcend Medical).
    Sergei Alpatov*
    Background or Purpose: To evaluate the effect of pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) combined with joining of the hole edges on the closure of full-thickness macular holes.
    Methods: clinical interview of surgeon. Various types of macular holes treatment are discussed.
    Conclusions: Mechanical joining and compression of the retinal edges during surgery for Stage 3 or 4 idiopathic macular holes appears to yield a promising anatomical and functional result.
    Case Report
    Arwa Azmeh*
    Aim: To report a case of acute visual loss at the time of intravitreal bevacizumab injection, with exacerbation of chronic kidney disease
    Methods: A 79 –years- old male, had acute visual loss to hand motion HM immediately at the time of intravitreal bevacizumab injection for age related macular degeneration AMD, which progressed to no light perception NLP one hour later. Intraocular pressure measurements IOP and fundus examinations were done at the time of injection, 1 hour, 1 day, 1 week and 1 month post injection. Carotid Doppler imaging CDI was performed 1 day post injection. B scan ultrasonography and OCT were done at follow-ups.
    Results: Patient's IOP was normal at the time of injection, 1hour, 1day, 1 week and 1 month post injection, with continued perfusion of central retinal artery CRA and normal appearance of optic disc. At 1 day post injection retinal and subretinal hemorrhages around posterior pole were noticed, with exudative macular detachment.1 week later macular detachment resolved and at 1 month macula became extensively atrophic. Final visual acuity was NLP. CDI revealed atherosclerotic changes on both sides. 1 month post injection patient had an acute attack of chronic kidney failure.
    Discussion: Visual loss was thought to be caused by choriocapillaries occlusion secondary to intravitreal bevacizumab. Exacerbation of chronic kidney disease was caused by reduction in systemic VEGF levels post intravitreal bevacizumab.
    Conclusion: Possible effects of intravitreal bevacizumab on systemic, retrobulbar and ocular circulation should always be kept in mind when facing unexplained acute visual loss post injection.
    Shen J* and Spors F
    Myopia is an ophthalmic condition in which the refractive power of the eye is too strong relative to its length. In general, myopia is differentiated into refractive and axial myopia, with the latter being the more common condition. In this situation the eye is axially elongated, which is associated with increased risk of ocular diseases. Worldwide the prevalence rates of myopia are continuously rising. Currently, every 1 out of 3 adults in the United States is myopic [1].
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