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  • ISSN: 2379-948X
    Volume 1, Issue 1
    Review Article
    Shin Kariya*, Mitsuhiro Okano and Kazunori Nishizaki
    Abstract: Both allergic rhinitis and bronchial asthma are inflammatory diseases in the respiratory tract. The upper and lower airways share many anatomical, physiological, and histological properties. A close relationship between allergic rhinitis and asthma has been established, and the "united airway disease hypothesis" proposes that upper and lower airway diseases are both manifestations of a single inflammatory process. Systemic therapies can resolve both diseases simultaneously. Although the association between asthma and allergic rhinitis has been examined extensively, the effect of other upper airway diseases on the onset and development of lower airway diseases is not fully understood. Rhinosinusitis is a common sinus infection, and recent studies have reported the possible role it plays on the pathogenesis of lower respiratory diseases. This article reviews the most up-to-date findings regarding the linkage and relationship between upper (rhinitis and rhinosinusitis) and lower (asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) airway diseases.
    Haralampos Gouveris1* and Vasilios Danielides2
    Abstract: After using the inferior nasal turbinate (INT) of the sheep to study various surgical interventions, radiofrequency tissue volume reduction (RFTVR) appears to be the less invasive technique currently available to reduce the INT non-osseous volume. The histologic parameters of wound healing such as fibrosis, submucosal interstitial volume, epithelial cell lining necrosis, inflammation and submucosal vascularization provide the measures upon which one should rely in order to compare various surgical (or other) interventions. From a molecular perspective, fibronectin, collagen III, CD68 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) are candidate control parameters and / or modulators of the wound healing and remodeling processes at the inferior nasal turbinate. 
    Keiko Ishikawa1 and Ravindhra G Elluru2*
    Abstract: Acquired subglottic stenosis (a SGS) continues to pose great challenge to patients and clinicians due to lack of effective treatment strategies. Our understanding in pathophysiology of a SGS has significantly advanced in the past decades; however, much still remains to be elucidated. The purpose of this review is to describe current state of research in acquired subglottic stenosis, and discuss future research directions. First, clinical definition and significance of a SGS are discussed. The second section focuses on review of literature that deals with the pathophysiology of a SGS. Histological studies of human samples, animal studies, and in-vitro studies are discussed. The review ends with a discussion on the potential of cell-therapy for a SGS with special attention to mesenchymal stem cell therapy.
    Case Report
    Giuseppe Magliulo1*, Giannicola Iannella1, Simone Alessi1 and Massimo Re2
    Abstract: Cavernous malformations of the internal auditory canal (IAC) are a rare clinical entity. We report a rare case of cavernous hemangioma involving the internal auditory canal and the meatal segment of the facial nerve without any evident lesion to the cerebello-pontine angle and geniculate ganglion. In English language literature several studies have described cavernous malformations of the IAC, but only a few authors have described a facial nerve origin for this type of lesion.
    Removal of the entire lesion was achieved via the surgical resection of the facial nerve and facial nerve continuity was restored using a great auricular nerve graft. Optimal postoperative facial function recovery was reported.
    Khan I*, Thiel G, Yeo J, Shakeel M and Ah-See KW
    Abstract: Objective: A study to evaluate the effectiveness of the use of pre CT checklist in requesting CT paranasal sinuses for managing patients with Chronic Rhinosinusitis (CRS).
    Place and Duration: CT sinuses performed at Aberdeen Royal Infirmary from 20 Aug 2010 to 3rd Nov 2010 after the introduction of pre CT paranasal sinus request checklist.
    Methods: Prospective studies of patients undergoing CT paranasal sinuses for complaints of CRS were included in this study. This was in fact a re-audit based on the recommendations by the original audit done in 2007 to reduce the number of normal CT paranasal sinuses being requested in view of the recommendations of the European Position Paper on Sinusitis (EPOS Document 2007).
    Results: A total of 83 CT Sinus scans had been performed, however, 17 patients were excluded from the study due to incomplete data or previous sinus surgery. 20 patients who had their pre CT checklist completed (Group 1) and 46 patients in whom the pre CT checklist was not completed (Group 2) were included in this study. The mean Lund Mackay Score in group 1 was 7.7 as compared to 3.45 in group 2. This was found to be statistically significant (p=0.0160). In Group 1, 9 (45%) out of 20 patients and in group 2, 10 (22%) out of 46 patients underwent endoscopic sinus surgery.
    Conclusion: These findings show that with the use of pre CT checklist in requesting CT paranasal Sinuses for CRS does show higher rate of positive sino-nasal pathology on CT paranasal sinuses, thus reducing the number of normal scans, negative endoscopic sinus surgeries and unnecessary radiation exposure.
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