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  • ISSN: 2379-948X
    Volume 2, Issue 9
    Short Communication
    James Paul Dworkin-Valenti*, Eric Sugihara, Noah Stern, Ilka Naumann, Samba Bathula, and Esmael Amjad
    Objective: To provide a synopsis of the various types, causes, and treatments of laryngeal inflammatory conditions.
    Data Sources: Information contained within this paper was derived from the scientific literature and the clinical experiences of the authors. The data gathered were reinforced by the clinical and research experiences of the authors.
    Review Methods: The Medline (PubMed) and Cochrane Library databases of references and abstracts were consulted for scientific information on types, causes, and treatments of laryngeal inflammation.
    Conclusions: The classification of laryngitis can be divided into acute and chronic forms with a multiplicity of underlying behavioral and organic causes. These pathogenic variables are discussed, including the insidious laryngeal effects of voice abuses, infectious processes, systemic diseases, reflux disorders, various medications, and allergies. An algorithm of alternative treatments for laryngeal inflammatory conditions is presented.
    Malene Sine Rokkjaer* and Tejs Ehlers Klug
    Noma is a devastating orofacial gangrenous polymicrobial infection, which is predominantly seen in malnourished children in developing (especially sub-Saharan) countries. The pathogenesis is multifactorial and thought to result from a complex interaction between opportunistic, bacterial pathogens, poor oral hygiene, and malnutrition in patients debilitated by severe illness or immunosuppression. The disease is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Only few cases of noma have been described in the Western world and to our knowledge noma have not previously been reported in Scandinavia. We describe a 37-year-old Caucasian male admitted due to acute necrotizing stomatitis advancing to fulminant noma within few days. The case report illustrates that noma should be considered as a differential diagnosis in patients presenting with severe orofacial infections, even in the Western world.
    Research Article
    Barbara Pittore*, Carlo Loris Pelagatti, Lisa Fraser, Mauro Cau, Francesco Deiana, and Giovanni Sotgiu
    Objective: To evaluate if oral Tranexamic Acid can decrease the proportion of individuals with secondary bleeding in the post-operative adeno-tonsillectomy phase.
    Study design: Observational, retrospective epidemiological study.
    Setting: San Francesco Hospital, Nuoro, Italy
    Patients and methods: Over 20 months 236 children underwent elective adeno-tonsillectomy for chronic tonsillitis and/or otitis media and/or adenotonsillar hypertrophy. Two groups of patients were identified: the first one included 149 patients who took oral Tranexamic Acid (20 mg/Kg daily) for 10 days in the post-operative period, whereas the second one was characterized by 87 patients who did not take Tranexamic Acid.
    Results: Only 6/236 (2.54%) cases of secondary bleeding were reported; 3/149 (2.01%) belonged to the group taking Tranexamic Acid, whereas 3/87 (3.44%; p-value: 0.5) belonged to the group not exposed to Tranexamic Acid. They were admitted and followed-up for 48 hours; no surgical interventions were performed.
    Conclusion: Oral Tranexamic Acid did not significantly decrease the proportion of post-adenotonsillectomy bleeding episodes in our cohort. New prospective, randomized, controlled trials are needed to test the effectiveness of that drug in the management of post-adenotonsillectomy hemorrhages episodes.
    Pradeep Pradhan*, Swagatika Samal, Priti Lal and VP Venkatachalam
    Objective: To demonstrate the double posterior based flap technique in primary endoscopic dacrocystorhinostomy and to compare the long-term surgical outcomes between patients with and without use of lacrimal stent in chronic nasolacrimal duct obstruction.
    Material method: Total 28 patients with chronic nasolacrimal duct obstruction were included in the study from September 2012 to august 2014. All patients underwent Endoscopic dacrocystorhinostomy with posterior based double lacrimal and mucosal flap technique. In 14 patients lacrimal stents were put for 2 weeks, and in rest 14 patients were operated without using the stent. Patients were evaluated 1 month, 3 months and 1 year after the surgery to check the lacrimal patency and to look for the complications associated with the procedure.
    Results: Out of 28 cases, recurrences of symptoms were noted in 2 (7.14%) cases, 1(7.14%) from stenting group and 1(7.14%) from non stenting group at the end one month and 3 months. At the end of 1 year, only 24 patients attended the outpatient clinic (11 from non stenting group and 13 from stenting group) and of them 1(9.09%) from non stenting group and 2(15.38%) from stenting group had recurrence of symptoms. The success rate of procedure in non stent group was 90.91% as compared to the stent group which was 84.62% at the end of 1 year. None of the patients in both groups had any major intraoperative or postoperative complications.
    Conclusion: Double posterior based mucosal and lacrimal flap technique in Primary EDCR is an effective surgical technique associated with satisfactory outcome. No significant difference in the results (p=0.588) and complications were noted between non stenting group stenting group.
    Case Report
    Pradeep Pradhan, Abhishek Bhardwaj* and Venkatachalam VP
    We have reported two male patients presenting with hoarseness and stridor respectively to the outpatient department, with later requiring emergency tracheostomy as life saving procedure. Endoscopic excision biopsies of the laryngeal lesions were performed and histopathological examination revealed amyloidosis. In the first patient, endoscopic excision of the mass was done with cold knife and in the second, treated with staged endoscopic coblation followed by decannulation. There was no recurrence of disease in both patients at one year of follow up.
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