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  • ISSN: 2379-948X
    Volume 4, Issue 6
    Case Report
    Fernando Morell*, Jose Rodriguez Leon, and Antonio Riera March
    Introduction: Laryngeal carcinoma represents a large percentage of the Head-and– Neck cancers diagnosed every year in the United States. In the past decade, an increase in the incidence of laryngeal carcinoma in nonsmokers has started to appear. This new patient is similar to the now common patient with HPV derived oropharyngeal carcinoma. To our best knowledge, there is few data available of this new laryngeal cancer patient in the Hispanic population including Puerto Rico. The aim of our study is to present one of the rare cases of advanced stage laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma with no previous history of smoking, drinking, or HPV and discuss the implications HPV may have in laryngeal carcinoma.
    Methods: A case study of a patient with advanced laryngeal carcinoma without history of drinking and smoking was performed. Also, a review of literature using PubMed and Science Direct with the following keywords was done: laryngeal carcinoma, HPV, laryngeal cancer treatment, and nonsmoker. This study was IRB exempt.
    Results: The literature has started to show an increase in the diagnosis of laryngeal carcinoma in patients without history of smoking. These patients have tested positive for HPV although this infection has not been proven to be the driving force as it is in some oropharyngeal carcinomas. Multiple recent studies have shown comparable results in advanced laryngeal carcinomas when comparing chemoradiation to the surgical standard in these cases.
    Conclusion: The overall survivability and disease free survival in this new type of patient appears to be better to that of the smoker patient. There is still controversy regarding the treatment of these new patients with laryngeal carcinoma.
    Review Article
    Khalid B. Alghamdi*
    This article provides a quick overview of the different trends in the management of benign parotid neoplasms. A literature review was conducted for the period between 1970 and 2017using the Medline, PubMed, Cochrane Reviews, and Scopus databases. Key words used for the search were “parotid surgery,” “rhytidectomy and hairline incisions,” “benign parotid neoplasms,” “facial nerve monitoring,” “partial and superficial parotidectomies,” “cytology of parotid mass,” “computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of benign parotid neoplasms,” “ultrasonography of a parotid mass,” and “Frey’s syndrome.” Eventually 200 articles were analyzed, after excluding articles written in languages other than English and including only those relevant to benign parotid neoplasms. This article briefly describes the latest classification systems for benign parotid tumors, new advances in the field of cytological genetic markers, and radiologic investigation approaches relevant to parotid surgery that could help surgeons in their decision-making. In addition, the incidence of post-operative complications of parotid surgery is likely to reduce with the implementation of head and neck oncologic surgery, organ preservation approaches, aesthetic incisions and flap elevation, preservation of the major divisions of the great auricular nerve, and facial nerve monitoring. Methods of camouflaging hollow defects with flaps or grafts are also mentioned, as this advancement together with meticulous wound closure will yield superior cosmetic outcomes
    Lucia Cavazos Cavazos, German A. Soto-Galindo, and José Luis Trevino Gonzalez*
    Laryngeal cancer is the second most frequent tumor of the upper aerodigestive tract. The most common type is squamous cell carcinoma, accounting for 85-95% of neoplasms. The most important risk factors are alcohol and tobacco consumption. The diagnosis is made by histopathology; however a complete medical history and physical examination should be performed. The direct visualization by direct or indirect laryngoscopy, or videostroboscopy are fundamental in the diagnosis process. The mass should be evaluated completely by extension imaging studies such as a computed tomography or nuclear magnetic resonance. Staging of the patient is vital for the correct treatment approach.
    Commentary
    MA Bashar*, Navjot Kaur, Nazia Begam, and Madhur Verma
    Deafness is a major public health problem in India and worldwide. Around 63(6.3%) million people suffer from significant hearing loss in India and hearing disability is the second most common disability here. The most common causes of reversible deafness are ear wax (15.9%), aging and presbycusis (10.3%), chronic suppurative otitis media (5.2%) and serous otitis media (3%). Half of the causes of deafness are totally preventable and around 30% though not preventable are treatable or can be managed with assistive devices. However, there is an acute shortage of human resources to address the issue in India. The estimated number of ear, nose and throat (ENT) specialists and otologists in India are only 7000 and 2000, respectively. The audimetrist: population ratio is 1:500,000 and ratio of speech therapist to the deaf population is 1:200. There is also a skewed distribution of personnel as more people are located in urban than rural areas. There is also a need for “universal newborn hearing screening” program in India for early identification of deafness in children for improved outcomes. There is need to strengthen the primary health care system for provision and implementation of prevention of deafness and hearing loss.
    Editorial
    William PR Gibson*
    The mechanism of the attacks of vertigo occurring during the course of Meniere’s disease has been a matter of speculation for over a hundred years. An early theory was that vasospasm of intracochlear blood vessels caused the attacks and treatment options included vasodilators and even cervical sympathectomy was undertaken.
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