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  • ISSN: 2379-948X
    Volume 4, Issue 8
    Case Report
    Jay E. Szekely, Esmael H. Amjad, Michel Evans, and James Dworkin-Valenti*
    Introduction: Plummer Vinson syndrome (PVS), involving a triad of iron deficiency anemia, esophageal webbing, and dysphagia, has become exceedingly rare due to iron supplementation and improved nutrition. PVS is associated with early development of hypopharyngeal carcinoma. When PVS is diagnosed, serial monitoring is required to detect the development of malignant lesions.
    Case: This case involves a 49 year old African American female who presented with dysphagia, severe iron deficiency anemia, and progressive dysphagia. An esophageal web and hypopharyngeal mass were soon discovered. The patient was without any other known risk factors for cancer. She received chemotherapy and radiation treatment, but had an extremely aggressive recurrence of disease and passed.
    Discussion: Although the diagnosis of PVS is infrequent it must be accurately ruled out, because it is associated with significantly higher rates of hypopharyngeal carcinoma. Patients with iron deficiency anemia and dysphagia should undergo testing to evaluate for PVS, and if diagnosed, these patients should be monitored for the possible development of malignancy.
    Hung-Wen Lee*
    Maxillary sinus elevation has become a predictable approach to increase bone height to allow implant placement to restore chewing function in the posterior maxilla. However, Schneiderian membrane perforation may occur during maxillary sinus elevation or implant placement. Improper management of the Schneiderian membrane perforation may cause maxillary sinusitis. The objective of this paper was to present maxillary sinus elevation approach to treat maxillary sinusitis due to previous failed maxillary sinus elevation or inappropriate implant placement.
    Research Article
    Hossien Talebi*, Sara Hasani, Mohammad Khajeh, and Alireza Golchin Namdari
    Introduction and the importance of the subject: Noise is one of the most extensive and most dangerous factors of hearing loss in work environment and Smoking is one of the common habits in all social levels including workers. Evidences have shown that smoking affects hearing system, but there is no sufficient investigation about its effect on hearing loss. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of smoking on noise-induced hearing loss.
    Method and Materials: A cross-sectional approach was performed on 30 smoker and 30 non-smoker individuals in one of the tile manufactories of Iran. Audiometric threshold measures were obtained on all selected subjects. Results were analyzed using SPSS 19 software.
    Results: The results show that the mean of hearing thresholds in frequencies of 250, 500, 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, 6000 and 8000 Hertz in both left and right ears for smokers is better than those who don't smoke. There is also a significant difference between hearing thresholds in each frequency in smokers and non-smokers (p<0.05).
    Discussion and conclusion: According to the findings of this study, smoking decreases the effect of noise on hearing loss. Therefore, smoking may have a protective effect on hearing of those who are exposed to noise.
    Review Article
    Jose Luis Trevino Gonzalez* and Karla Duran Moreno
    Acute otitis externa is the inflammation and infection of the external auditory canal. The acute form can be classified as diffuse otitis externa, which is the most common form of OE, and localized otitis externa. This pathology occurs primarily in swimmers because of the prolonged exposure to water, but it can also be caused by minor traumas in an inappropriate cleaning. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus are the most common pathogens found in AOE.
    Signs and symptoms include otalgia, itching, canal edema, erythema and otorrhea. The most significant sign is soreness of the tragus with movement.
    Diagnosis is clinical with help of an otoscope to have a direct and clearer view.
    For the management of acute otitis externa, a combination of measures is necessary. The most important step is an exhaustive cleaning or aspiration of the ear canal, so there is a correct penetration of the drug therapy.
    Treatment for AOE involves acidifying agents alone, acidifying agents with steroids, or antibiotics with steroids. This last one is the most recommended treatment, being Ciprofloxacin the first line of treatment in antibiotics.
    Shalini Malhotra*
    Zygomycosis has an angio-invasive pathology with high morbidity and mortality rates and mainly affects immunocompromised patients. Rhizopus species is the most common known cause and Rhizomucor, Cunninghamella, Saksenaea, and Apophysomyces species occur less frequently. The diagnosis is difficult and done in the terminal stage of the disease or even postmortem except for the rhinocerebral and cutaneous forms. However, with the development of diagnostic tools that allowed earlier diagnosis, better surgical and newer antifungal interventions, more patients are surviving these previously fatal infections. This review briefly describes about the newer classification, clinical manifestations, co-infection with other organisms and development in treatment strategy of zygomycosis.
    Case Report
    Amit Kumar, Abhijeet Singh*, Anand Subash, and Anamika Rathi
    The rarity of primary hydatidosis in sub mandibular neck region may create a diagnostic dilemma with brachial cyst, dermoid cyst, sebaceous cyst and even lipoma. Even in endemic population with frequently reported hydatid disease, the diagnosis ofsubmandibular region hydatidosis needs a high index of radiological suspicion like double capsule pattern on ultrasonography and multiloculated hypoechoic cystic disease with scolices seen on computed tomography scans.An experienced radiologist may reportthese rare diagnoses and avoid aspiration cytology thus decreasing chances of theoretical anaphylactic reactions. Different clinical presentation of primary hydatidosis depends on the cyst load, topographic location of cysts and the host's immune response. We report a case of an 18-year-old boy with soft, painless left submandibular region swelling since eight years, who was diagnosed radiologically to be a case of hydatid disease of submandibular gland region and successfully underwent surgical excision without pre operative fine needle aspiration cytology. The review of literature suggest no definite consensus regarding routineuse of aspiration cytology for diagnosis but we here by propose that proper preoperative radiology may avoid need of any cytology whatsoever.
    Carlos Alberto Cavalcante de Barros Junior, Genival Barbosa de Carvalho*, Renan Bezerra Lira, Mauro Kasuo Ikeda, Felipe D' Almeida Costa, Daniele Sismeiro Carnevalli, Marcelo Luiz Balacin, Gislaine Cristina Lopes Machado Porto, Joel Rodrigo Beal Lusa, Clovis Antonio Lopes Pinto, and Luiz Paulo Kowalski
    The Malignant myoepithelioma (MME) is an extremely rare type of tumor of the salivary glands. There are few case reports. In this report we present a case of laryngeal MME with aggressive behavior and a review of the literature regarding the diagnosis, treatment options and standard prognosis of this tumor.
    Review Article
    Jorge Filipe Rodrigues*, Francisco Moreira da Silva, Joao Mangussi-Gomes, Felipe Marconato, Camila Soares Dassi, Leonardo Balsalobre, and Aldo Stamm
    Background and objectives: Solitary lesions of the clivus are uncommon and represent a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. There is a wide range of entities, with several behaviours, that can affect the central region of skull base. Imaging studies constitute an important tool in differentiating between malign, benign and non-tumoral lesions. The aim of this study is to provide an overview of the clinical and radiological characteristics of clival lesions.
    Subjects and methods: A literature review was conducted, with special attention to clinical and imaging features of the different diseases that can affect the clivus. Clinical examples of some cases are also given.
    Results: Chordoma is the most frequent lesion in this location, although they are difficult to distinguish from chondrosarcomas or metastases on CT scans and MR images. Benign neoplasms can also be life-threatening and clinically undistinguishable from malignancies. Non-tumoral lesions can mimic neoplasms and lead to unnecessary aggressive treatments.
    Conclusion: Clival disorders comprise a large range of entities with different characteristics and behaviors. Imaging study allows an evaluation of the tumor extent, a reliable distinction between benign and malignant processes and helps in the suspicious diagnosis. Despite imaging is an important supporting element, a final diagnosis often cannot be found without histologic biopsy.
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