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  • ISSN: 2379-948X
    Volume 5, Issue 3
    Research Article
    Eugenia I. Toki*, Giorgos Tatsis, Dionysios Tafiadis, Konstantinos Plachouras, and Nausica Ziavra
    Acoustic analysis, as a well-established objective approach, is used to evaluate dysphonia. Normal acoustic reference ranges are necessary to determine any voice deviations. There is limited research reporting on vocal acoustic parameters in normal children.
    Aim: The aim of this study was to verify measurements and vocal characteristics of normal acoustic parameters in children in Greece.
    Materials and Method: 523 children, aged 4 to 18 years old contributed to the normative data base. Vocal samples of sustained /a/ and /i/ were obtained and computerized acoustic analysis using multi-dimensional voice program software was conducted. The vocal acoustic parameters were fundamental frequency, jitter and shimmer disturbance measures, and noise-harmonic ratio's.
    Results: The results of the study report on measurements of the vocal acoustic parameters according to age and gender. Statistical differences were noted on vocal measurements between genders for age range 12 to 18.
    Conclusion: The outcomes of this study, on estimating reference values on vocal acoustic parameters, can be a significant step to develop non-invasive measurements towards the detection of voice pediatric voice disorders.
    Review Article
    Lemmietta G. McNeilly* and Tommie L Robinson
    Ear, Nose and Throat Surgeons (ENTs) diagnose a number of health conditions in children and adults that result in communication disorders or co-exist with communication disorders.
    Speech-Language Pathologists/Phoniatricians/Logopedists assess and treat a variety of communication disorders including dysphagia, voice disorders, and velopharyngeal insufficiency.
    Tommie L Robinson* and Lemmietta G. McNeilly
    This article is designed to give otolaryngologists an overview of who should be referred to audiologists and speech-language pathologists for speech, language, hearing and related communication disorders. At-risk categories will be presented as well as an overview of each component of speech, language, hearing and feeding/swallowing.
    Short Communication
    Muzeyyen Ciyiltepe* and Betul Cifci
    It is important to evaluate oral motor skills, make appropriate diagnosis and develop appropriate intervention plans for individuals who stutter. One of the measures used to evaluate oral motor skills is diadochokinesia (DDK). Diadochokinesia or diadochokinesis is the ability to make antagonistic movements in quick succession, alternately bringing a limb into opposite positions, as of flexion and extension or of pronation and supination. Diadochokinetic analysis examines the speed, accuracy and continuity measures of speech production in monosyllabic /pɅ/, /tɅ/, /kɅ/and multisyllabic /pɅtɅkɅ/ sequences.
    This study aimed to compare the diadokinetic performance of children aged 7-12 with and without stuttering. Participants were composed of girls and boys with and without stuttering from each age group. The data of the diadokinetic measurements of stuttering children were compared to the data of the typically developing children.
    It was found that there was a significant difference in favor of children who do not stutter during production of /pɅ/ and /kɅ/ syllables. Results of the research between the genders found there was a significant difference in favor of girls. In addition, there was significance in favor of 10-12 age group for /pɅ/ syllable.
    Case Report
    Andrew C. Jenzer*, Mark A. Schlam, and Christopher J Smith
    Background and Overview: Pleomorphic adenoma (PA) is the most common primary epithelial neoplasm of the minor salivary glands. The authors report a case of PA at the junction of the hard and soft palate and step-by-step surgical management.
    Case Description: A 38 year old male presented to the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery (OMS) clinic, referred by a general dentist for evaluation and treatment of a palatal lesion. The patient was an active duty soldier in the US Army with an unremarkable medical history. The lesion was found incidentally during a routine dental exam and was asymptomatic on presentation. The lesion was 6mm in diameter, firm, non-tender to palpation, and located near the junction of the hard and soft palate laterally equivalent with the 2nd molar, and 5mm left of midline.
    The lesion was biopsied and a histopathological diagnosis of pleomorphic adenoma was made. The patient was brought to the main operating room and the tumor removed with 10mm surgical margins, subsequently demonstrating clean margins of histopathological evaluation.
    Conclusion and Practical Implications: This case serves as a reminder to providers working the oral cavity and pharynx that though uncommon, minor salivary gland tumors do occur and all lesions should be carefully considered for biopsy and further evaluation. This cases demonstrates an operative approach to removing such a tumor for its site of most common occurrence, the junction of the hard and soft palates.
    Short Communication
    Gary Nishioka*
    The paradoxically curved lateral crura of the lower lateral cartilage is a challenging nasal deformity to correct and surgical approaches encompass one of three techniques: 1) camouflaging the defect with nasal septal cartilage onlay grafts, 2) suture reshaping, or 3) repositioning the paradoxically curved segment by sectioning and rotating the involved segment as a free graft taking advantage of the contour abnormality.
    This article describes a novel surgical technique which creates a lateral randomly vascularized soft tissue pedicle which serves as the site of rotation along the long axis of the lateral crura, but also securely anchors the flap laterally for stability. The lateral crura is sectioned medially at the mid-medial crura. Once the underlying vestibular skin is released the entire segment is rotated 180° along the long axis and is completely everted relying on the flexibility and resilience of thelateral crura cartilage. The medial segment is secured to the contralateral medial crura with or without a nasal septal cartilage strut graft providing medial anchoring of the graft. The entire reconstruction is solid and secure, and the immediate outcome is reliably stable once the procedure is completed.
    This surgical technique is described in detail with step-by-step figures to allow the reader to conceptionally understand and analyze the procedure for themselves. This procedure has been performed for 12 patients, all achieving the same result as described in this representative surgical case technique article, and without complications. It is recommended the surgeon be very comfortable with open rhinoplasty before attempting this procedure.
    Case Report
    Ibrahim Murat Afat*
    Schwannomas are well-differentiated, benign tumours arising from the Schwann cells of the nerve sheath. Schwannomas arising from the infraorbital nerve (ION) are very rare, and very few cases are reported in literature.
    The Review of the Literature covered all English literature between 1944 and January 2018. The keywords used in the search were 'schwannoma' or 'neurinoma' or 'neurilemmoma' and 'infraorbital' or 'infra-orbital'. As a result, 10 cases of ION and branch case reports and 4 cases of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours with ION involvement were examined in full text.
    A rare case of a schwannoma arising from the medial superior labial branch of the ION and its treatment are presented.
    Research Article
    Mohamed Salah Elgandy*, Ann E. Perreau, Patricia C. Mancini, Helena Ji, and Richard S. Tyler
    Several studies have suggested that tinnitus severity or distress is worse in patients with more severe hearing loss. We explored the relationship between tinnitus severity measured on two tinnitus questionnaires and hearing thresholds in alarge population of cochlear implant recipients. No significant correlations were found between hearing thresholds and the Tinnitus Handicap Questionnaire and the Tinnitus Primary Functions Questionnaire. We conclude that there is no clear relationship between the reaction to tinnitus and hearing threshold loss.
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