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  • ISSN: 2373-9282
    Current Issue
    Volume 6, Issue 4
    Review Article
    Attapon Cheepsattayakorn* and Ruangrong Cheepsattayakorn
    Ramazzini first described this disease, namely “Pneumonoultramicroscopicsilicovolcanokoniosis” and then was changed according to the types of exposed dust. No reliable figures on the silica-inhalation exposed individuals are officially documented. How silica particles stimulate pulmonary response and the exact path physiology of silicosis are still not known and urgently require further research. Nevertheless, many researchers hypothesized that pulmonary alveolar macrophages play a major role by secreting fibroblast-stimulating factor and re-ingesting these ingested silica particles by the pulmonary alveolar macrophage with progressive magnification. Finally, ending up of the death of the pulmonary alveolar macrophages and the development of pulmonary fibrosis appear. Various mediators, such as CTGF, FBRS, FGF2/bFGF, and TNFa play a major role in the development of silica-induced pulmonary fibrosis. A hypothesis of silicosis-associated abnormal immunoglobulins has been postulated. In conclusion, novel studies on pathogenesis and biomarkers of silicosis are urgently needed for precise prevention and control of this silently threaten disease of the world.
    Letter to Editor
    AmalR Nimir*, and Anne Jamaludin
    Prevention Is Better Than Cure; that's what we have always been told.
    Let's imagine living in the 14th century for a minute. You wake up in a flea-ridden bed after a restless night of sleep, interrupted by the alarm clock of the century (the nearest rooster).
    Editorial
    Nicholas J. Kavana*
    Spirometra is a pseudophyllidean tapeworm of Canidae and Felidae [1] with worldwide distribution. This cestode is of medical importance as its larvae, the plerocercoid can infect humans causing sparganosis. Sparganosis is endemic in many countries with the majority of cases reported from Southeast Asia, China, Japan and Eastern Africa [2-6] The life-cycle of Spirometra sp. is dependent of two types of intermediate hosts.
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