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  • ISSN: 2373-9282
    Current Issue
    Volume 5, Issue 5
    Research Article
    Shimaa A.A. Ismail*
    Background: Environmental toxicants have been found to induce multiple adverse effects on human and animal’s body organs including, kidney and immune system. Presently, this experiment was designed to assess the nephro-protective and immune-stimulant effects of spirulina platensis microalgae against lead acetate induced attenuated body immune response and oxidative renal damages.
    Methods: 40 male albino rats were randomly divided into equal 4 groups. In comparison with control (C) group. Animals were received spirulina platenesis (300 mg/kg b. wt, orally) and/or lead acetate (50 mg/kg b.wt, IP) for 4 weeks. Samples were collected at the end of the experimental period. Protective effects of SP were checked by measuring selective hematological, immunological and biochemical tests, besides histopathological and immunohistochemical investigations.
    Results: Co-exposed SP/LD rats showed significant (P < 0.05) suppression in the levels of LD induced –elevated urea, creatinine, MDA, MCV, retics%, and caspaes-3 over-expression, in contrast, they evoked significant elevation in LD-induced depleting GSH, SOD, IgG, IgM, hypo-proteinemia, hypo-albuminemia, hypo-gamma-globulinemia, RBCs, Hb, PCV, MCHC, WBCs, Lymphocytes, and CD8 down-expression. Additionally, SP restored the renal histological structure near the normal.
    Conclusion: SP protects from toxic immunological, hematological, and nephrotoxic impacts of LD through its powerful free radical-scavenging, antioxidant, and immunostimulant activities.
    Anna Modji Basse*, Ngor Side Diagne, Soumaila Boubacar, Adjaratou Dieynabou Sow, Daniel Massi Gams, Mamadou Coumé, Ndiaga Matar Gaye, Maouly Fall, Ousmane Cissé, Mbagnick Bakhoum, Alassane Mamadou Diop, Marième Soda Diop, Moustapha Ndiaye, Kamadore Touré, and Amadou Gallo Diop
    Strokes is a public health problem due to their direct annual costs relating to hospital care, related fees and their indirect annual costs linked to the consequences of remaining disability. Stroke is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Therefore, epidemiological studies in different parts of the world are needed. The overall objective of this study was to describe the epidemiology of stroke of patients received at the neurology unit of the Retirement Care Center of Dakar in IPRES. It was a retrospective study conducted from January 2010 to April 2016, using patient’s medical files. Among 1400 consulted patients, 275 (19.6%) were enrolled in our study. The mean age was 71.8 ± 8.7 years old (extremes: 43-101) with a male predominance (66.2%). Concerning the brain CT-scan, 243 patients (88.4%) presented cerebral infarct. The main risk factors were high blood pressure HBP (80%), diabetes (17.1%) and history of stroke (14.2%). Frequent complications encountered were epilepsy (11.5%) and vascular dementia (8.7%), motor disability (6.5%) and stroke recurrence (6%). Approximately 22 deaths have been noted giving a lethality rate of 12.02%. Most patients (54,44%) experienced clinical improvement. Stroke represents a major public health problem. It is therefore necessary to fight against stroke by early diagnosis and management of risk factors including HBP, especially among the elderly.
    Rahmeto Abebe* Berhanu Mekbib, and Daniel Ketema
    The study was conducted in cart-horses apparently recovered from Epizootic lymphangitis to evaluate the cytopathological findings in swollen superficial lymph nodes and lymphatic vessels, to identify the possible causative agents of such swellings and to assess the degree of resolution of the pathogen (Histoplasma farciminosum). Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) samples were collected from 126 cart horses with visible swollen superficial lymph nodes and/or lymphatic vessels (Group I) and 46 apparently recovered carthorses with linear scars on their sternum, face and limbs (Group II). Smears were prepared, stained with modified Giemsa and thoroughly examined for cellular responses and infectious agents. Cytologic diagnosis revealed that 89.7% and 10.3% of the samples from the first group were positive for Histoplasma farciminosum and bacteria of unidentified species, respectively. On the other hand, examination of samples taken from group II cart-horses showed lymphadenitis without apparent causative agent in 15.2%, lymphadenitis along with Histoplasma farciminosum in 19.56% and absolutely normal lymph nodes in 65.2% of the horses. Further evaluation of lymphadenitis cases without apparent causative agent (from group II) indicated that 42.86%, 42.86% and 14.3% of the cases were eosinophilic, neutrophilic, and lymphadenitis of immune stimulation in nature on the basis of dominant cellular reactions. All of the cases of lymphadenitis associated with Histoplasma farciminosum were pyogranulomatous in nature. In general, cytology was found valuable tool in establishing a diagnosis, identifying the process and forming a prognosis. Horses apparently recovered from lymphangitis can harbor the agent in their superficial lymph nodes and act as source of infection for naive horses. Humane destruction of severe cases and carrier horses should be practiced widely in the country to effectively control epizootic lymphangitis. Further study is required to isolate and characterize the bacterial causes of lymphangitis.
    Short Communication
    G.O. Ajayi*
    Background: Maternal Toxoplasma gondii infection during pregnancy can cause significant morbidity and mortality in the developing fetuses. But there is a little consensus about screening during pregnancy and the test used to establish a Toxoplasmosis diagnosis are complex.
    Objective: The objective is to determine the seropositivity rate of Toxoplasma gondii IgG/ IgM in maternal and fetal compartment and compare the fetal Toxoplasma gondii IgM result with polymerase-chain-reaction test (PCR) result.
    Setting: The outpatient of Prenatal Diagnosis and Therapy Centre laboratory of a University Tertiary Care Centre in Lagos.
    Design: A retrospective study.
    Method and Material: Prenatal Diagnosis Test including ultrasonography, maternal blood screening for Toxoplasma gondii IgG/IgM, amniocentesis and fetal blood sampling were performed in n =398 patients referred to rule out present or past Toxoplasma gondii infection. Amniocentesis was performed in 70 (78.65%) cases including a set of twin and cordocentesis in 19(21.35%) cases. The results obtained from a Toxoplasma gondii IgM positivity in Amniotic fluid and Cord blood were compared with the result of the PCR test on the 17 Toxoplasma gondii IgM positive in amniotic fluid and 5 Toxoplasma gondii IgM positive in cord blood. Congenital infection was found in 22 (24.72%) cases out of the 89 patients with IgG/IgM Toxoplasma gondiisero positivity. The PCR was positive in 20 (90.90%) out of 22 cases.
    Conclusion: Prenatal diagnosis using ultrasound, amniocentesis, cordocentesis, serology testing and PCR is relatively safe, reliable and accurate. It must be done by experienced personnel.
    Case Report
    Manouchehr Aghajanzadeh, Hossein Hemmati, Ali Ashraf, Siamak Rimaz, and Mahdi Pursafar*
    Thoracic trauma can cause significant mortality and morbidity. Traumatic thoracic injuries are accompanied by abdominal, head and extremity injuries. Thoracic trauma is divided into two groups; penetrating and blunt. Penetrating traumas are primarily caused by gunshots and sharp objects. The lungs are the most commonly injured organ in penetrating thoracic trauma. Impalement of chest is an uncommon injury and one of the most severe types of penetrating thoracic injuries. Only a few cases have been reported in which the patient recuperated without sequelae. Impalement chest trauma are usually fatal, therefore few cases have been reported in the literature review. These injuries usually occur unilaterally. Our case report is about rebar impalement into unilateral hemithorax after falling down without any mortal injury and only a minor laceration of pericardium, lung, and the great vessels of subclavian. The fact is that such injury (as our case) without any intrathoracic catastrophic event is rare.
    Mutalip Cicek*, Fatih Cakir, Alican Bilden, Nida Ozcan, Ozcan Deveci, and Kadri Gül
    Cyclospora cayetanensisis a coccidian protozoan causing gastroenteritis and has become a major agent of diarrhea in recent years. Six patients were admitted with complaint diarrhea and abdominal pain to the infectious diseases outpatient clinic of Dicle University’s Research and Training Hospital. Stool specimens were examined with the wet mount and modified acid-fast staining methods. These patients were diagnosed as having cyclosporiasis. of the Cyclospora cayetanensis positive patients, three subjects were females and the other three were males. Different parasite species other than Cyclospora cayetanensis was not detected in these patients. Laboratory examinations, whole blood counts, urine analyses, and hepatic and renal function were normal in patients. The patients had diarrhea, fatigue, fever, anorexia, and abdominal pain complaints. This research reports the clinical, diagnostic, and therapeutic features of six cyclosporiasis cases in Diyarbakir province of southeastern Turkey. Additionally, a review of the literature from Turkey on this protozoan is included.
    Takuji Tanaka*
    Langerhans cells (LCs) derived from the CD34+ hematopoietic precursor cells of the bone marrow are mobile, dendritic, antigen-presenting cells. The characteristic cytoplasmic marker, the Birbeck granules, is found ultrastructually in 10-week-old embryo.
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