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  • ISSN: 2373-9312
    Volume 3, Issue 4
    Short Communication
    Eri Osawa1*, Tomosa Hayashi2 and Tomoko Kodama Kawashima1
    Abstract
    Introduction: This study aimed to examine factors associated with the attitudes of parents of 6-month-old infants, with respect to maintaining a daily life rhythm for their child.
    Methods: Cross-tabulated data from nationwide cross-sectional surveys (the Longitudinal Survey of Newborns in the 21st Century), conducted in 2001 and 2010 by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan, were used for analysis using a logistic regression model.
    Results: We analyzed data of 47,010 infants from 2001 (response rate 87.7%) and 38,554 infants (response rate 88.1%) from 2010. The percentage of parents with positive attitudes towards maintaining a daily life rhythm for their baby was 53.7% in 2001, and increased to 63.1% in 2010. In both years, higher annual family income (over 6 million yen) was associated with parents’ attitude towardstheir infant’s daily life rhythm (odds ratio [OR] 1.43, 1.58; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.29–1.58, 1.38–1.80; p<0.001, in respective years). Working mothers under childcare leave were more inclined to maintain their baby’s daily rhythm as compared with nonworking mothers (OR 1.22, 95% CI 1.15–1.30, p < 0.001;OR 1.16, 95% CI 1.10–1.22, p < 0.001, respectively). In situations where there were older sibling(s), parents were less likely to maintain a daily rhythm for their infant (OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.77–0.83, p < 0.001;OR 0.49, 95% CI 0.47–0.51, p < 0.001, respectively).
    Conclusion: Family income and the working status of mothers were associated with parental attitudes towards maintaining infant’s daily life rhythm in this study.
    Research Article
    Vasantha Thavaraj1*, Brijesh Vashishth1, O S Sastry2, Arti Kapil3, and Neeraj Kapoor4
    Abstract
    Background: The current rate of infant mortality in India is 40/1000, two thirds of which is due to neonatal mortality1. Neonatal sepsis accounts for more than 50% of the neonatal mortality in India. Ideally the prompt culture of specimens – i.e. body fluids e.g. blood, urine, cerebro-spinal fluid, etc. – would help isolate and identify microorganisms causing infection and sepsis. The results of the lab tests will help clinicians to institute timely and appropriate antibiotics to the patient. This will culminate in an overall decrease in morbidity and mortality related to sepsis/infections.
    In resource-limited countries, in rural communities, there is a distinct lack of (functional) culture facilities; therefore, these specimens would require to be transported to the nearest well-equipped culture laboratory for processing, interpretation of the causative organism, and its sensitivity to antimicrobials. As the optimum temperature for bacteria culture such as the frequently used E. coli as well as mammalian cells is approximately 37° C, this is the temperature that needs to be maintained for specimens in transit from the community to the laboratory. Our main aim was to fabricate a portable culture incubator which could run on solar energy. In this paper, we highlight the benefits of the Solar Powered Portable Culture Incubator which enables the successful culture of human fluids despite unavailability of proximate laboratory facilities.
    Methods: As the culture of specimens requires maintenance of the appropriate temperature in the right culture media, the Solar Powered Portable Culture Incubator is fabricated to commence the culture process of the specimen soon after collection and maintain appropriate environmental conditions whilst in transit from remote locations to a well-equipped laboratory facility. The Solar Powered Portable Culture Incubator is made of wood and can maintain a temperature of 35 ± 2º C using a battery on a dual system i.e. a battery which is charged through a solar module during daytime, and switches to normal electric power when the solar energy available is inadequate to charge the battery. During transportation the temperature within the incubator is maintained with a solar module installed on the rooftop of the vehicle.
    Findings: An experiment was conducted by drawing a sample of pus from an inpatient’s infected wound at a district hospital. Blood agar plates were streaked with bacteria from the sample and incubated at 37º C using the Solar Powered Portable Culture Incubator. It was found that bacteria were successfully cultured, i.e. the required quantity of bacteria grew in the incubator environment. Therefore, it was proven that the Solar Powered Portable Culture Incubator is capable of effectively transporting human fluid for culture from remote locations to better-equipped laboratory facilities.
    Interpretation: The Solar Powered Portable Culture Incubator will help in establishing mobile culture facilities at the district level or the sub-district level; therefore, there is a tremendous scope for this product in our health system in rural as well as urban settings.
    Case Report
    Sundus Khan1, Shahameen Aqeel1, Muhammad Arif2 and Sina Aziz3*
    Abstract: Cirrhosis (Greek word) by definition is a hard, nodular regenerating disease of liver in which the hepatocytes are constantly injured (by insulting agent) with fibrosis due to increase in connective tissues that ultimately lead to destruction in structure and function of liver. Cirrhosis in paediatric population occur due to acute/chronic liver damage which may be due to viral hepatitis (HBV, HBV and HDV co infection, HCV, CMV or NANB hepatitis), autoimmune disorders, toxins (drug induced), certain inborn errors of metabolism (Wilson`s disease, alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency, tyrosinemiaetc.), glycogen storage disease or cryptogenic.We report a case of a 2 year 6 month old baby boy who presented with bleeding from nose, abdominal distension and hepatomegaly; investigation revealed a cirrhotic liver disease pattern.
    Samuel Levi, Leina Alrabadi, Preeti Singh, Angela Flores* and Vijay Tonk
    Abstract: L1 syndrome encompasses a spectrum of conditions that includes a common clinical finding of congenital hydrocephalus and X-linked inheritance. L1CAM is the only gene implicated in this condition. Approximately 247 different mutations have been reported in 300 families. We present a family with a novel mutation. We also describe the significance and role of congenital hydrocephalus related to perinatal morbidity and mortality. The role of the L1CAM gene and significance of mutations is described.
    Altonbary Y1, Mansour AK1, Sarhan M1, Alwakeel AA1, Abdelmabood S1, Elmahdi HS2 and Darwish A1*
    Abstract: Childhood proptosis is quite different from that of the adult. While thyroid orbitopathy is the most common cause in adults, proptosis among children can be caused by: infection, inflammation, vascular and developmental malformation and finally malignancies. Orbital cellulitis and malignancies are considered the most common causes in children. In the present work we review the common causes of proptosis in children and report a series of four cases with proptosis caused by different malignant lesions retrieved from Pediatric Oncology Unit, Oncology Center of Mansoura University, Egypt in addition to providing an approach to a child with proptosis.
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