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  • ISSN: 2373-9312
    Volume 3, Issue 5
    Research Article
    Maria Moschovi1*, Michaela Nikolaou1, Archontis Zampogiannis1, Kalliopi Stefanaki2 and Efstathios Antoniou3
    Purpose: The most common types of liver tumors in pediatric patients are hepatoblastoma (HBL) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The relationship between perinatal characteristics and hepatoblastoma as well as the outcome of liver tumors is the aim of our study.
    Methods: 11 children with liver tumors who were diagnosed and treated in our unit were enrolled in our study. The age at diagnosis ranged from 2 months to 5 years for HBL (med:12 months) and 7-8 years for HCC. Predisposing factors such as hepatitis B,C, CMV, or metabolic disorders were tested. All patients treated according to SIOPEL protocol (plus Nexavare, in HCC) and remain in remission.
    Results: 9 cases had HB and 2 HCC. The birth weight of patients was ranged from 1770gr-3850gr while 6 out of eleven children (66%) had birth weight lower than 2900gr. The gestational age in 4 cases was up to 37 weeks. Predisposing factors were not observed in any of our cases. All cases are in complete first remission. One patient with HCC had reactivation of the disease but achieved remission after second surgery.
    Conclusion: 1) There is an increased risk for hepatoblastoma among children with low birth weight. 2) No predisposing factors were found in children with HCC. 3) Although the HCC is usually diagnosed at the age of 10-14 years old, our cases were diagnosed in the earlier childhood. 4) Surgical resection and the SIOPEL protocol give an excellent outcome, without radiotherapy.
    KC Rai Salma*, Thapa Hari, Bhari Arjun Malla, Bajracharya Kabindra
    Purpose: To describe ocular problems seen and treatments provided to the children attending a tertiary level eye care facility in western Nepal.
    Material and Methods: In the hospital based retrospective study, all children coming to the pediatric department of Lumbini Eye Institute during October and November, 2013 were reviewed. Out of 1295 new children, 1061children in age of 0-15 years were included in the study. Data on age at presentation, sex and diagnosis were collected from clinical charts and analyzed. Patients were grouped into four age groups (0-1 years, 2-5 years, 6-10 years and 11-15 years) and grouped in terms of clinical diagnoses.
    Results: Among 1061 children examined, male: female ratio of 1.43:1, the most common group was children aged 11-15 years (35.5%). Conjunctival diseases were the most common disorder 235 (22.1%) in children followed by refractive errors (19.8%) and disorders of lacrimal drainage system (15.7%). 70.6% children needed medical treatment, 21.5% required glasses, 5.5% required surgery and 1% required orthoptic treatment. 56 % were Nepalese children.
    Conclusion: Conjuctival disorder and refractive errors were the most common occurring disorder. Males were more affected than females. Most children needed medical treatment followed by optical correction.
    Case Report
    Ferreras L. Antolín1*, González JM Gómez2, Moreno-Pérez D1, Martínez MI León3 and Bienvenido Ros López4
    Abstract A previously healthy 21-month-old girl who presented to the emergency department with 4 days of fever and progressive lethargy, initially computed tomography (CT) scan was normal and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was lymphocyte predominant pleocytosis. Despite medical treatment, she showed a progressive neurological worsening. A new CSF culture showed L. monocytogenes growing and a brain MRI demonstrated rhombencephalitis and secondary obstructive hydrocephalus. Meningoencephalitis by Listeria monocytogenes is a rare entity in immunocompetent toddlers and older children, rhombencephalitis is an unusual form of presentation, which affects the brain stem and protuberance parenchyma. With this case, we review the clinical presentation and management of this unusual infection.
    Clinical Image
    Nayantara Rao G*, Kayur Mehta, Mohammed Abdul Sami, Narasimha S Rao
    Abstract Dubowitz syndrome is an uncommon genetic disorder associated with typical facial dysmorphism and a variety of cutaneous, skeletal, systemic, immunological and hematological abnormalities. Thus far, only about 150 cases have been reported worldwide. We describe a nine year old boy with characteristic facies and a spectrum of other associated features which were consistent with the diagnosis of Dubowitz syndrome. Prompt diagnosis with regular follow-up and appropriate supportive care remains the key to the management of this disorder.
    Mini Review
    Alexandra Cutillo, Nina Reynolds, and Avi Madan-Swain
    Abstract Caregivers of children with cancer are at risk for distress, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress symptoms. In particular, fathers of children with cancer present with unique coping challenges related to traditional gender roles and societal expectations. Identifying effective interventions to help these caregivers is critical. Creative therapies, such as music therapy, may be particularly beneficial. Prior research suggests that music therapies such as rhythmic drumming help individuals to relax and decrease anxiety and stress. The present article reviews literature on music therapy, rhythmic drumming in particular, as a potential therapeutic option for fathers of children with cancer. Further, the authors also propose a study designed to assess the feasibility and efficacy of music therapy in caregivers of children with cancer.
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