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  • ISSN: 2373-9312
    Volume 4, Issue 4
    Review Article
    Carlos G. Musso*, Maritza Contreras, and Paula Coccia
    Water, sodium and potassium regulation is usually altered in end-stage renal disease patients, particularly in frail individuals such as pediatric and elderly people. In this review article, pathophysiology of water, sodium, and potassium imbalance in peritoneal dialysis pediatric patients is in detail described. Understanding the etiological mechanisms of dysnatremia and dyskalemia in this group is crucial for their proper diagnosis and treatment.
    Short Communication
    Gloria-Bottini F*, Neri A, Magrini A, and Bottini E
    The purpose of our study is to identify the fetal genetic factors contributing to birth weight (BW) and their possible cooperative interactions. We have reexamined our data on four genetic systems previously studied Acid Phosphatase locus 1 (ACP1), Phosphoglucomutae locus 1 (PGM1), Adenosine Deaminase (ADA1), Adenilate Kinase locus 1 (Ak1 concerning their effects on BW)
    Two hundred forty five newborn infants from the White population of Rome and 343 newborns from the White population of Penne delivered by healthy nonsmoking mothers have been considered. Enzyme phenotypes were determined by starch gel electrophoresis.
    Marked differences concerning BW are observed between phenotypes of Ak1 in both Rome and Penne. For other markers a BW difference between genotypes is less marked and shows variability between the two populations but are always in the same direction. In both populations, in infants from nonsmoking mothers, there is a positive correlation between the number of genetic factors and BW.A linear positive correlation is observed between the number of factors and the proportion of infants with a BW greater than the 90thpercentile.The correlation is observed in infants with gestational length > 38 weeks only. In infants from smoking mothers there is no significant correlation
    The results are in line with the hypothesis that BW is influenced by a great number of genetic factors each with small effect and that there is a cooperative interaction between these factors.
    Case Report
    Marco Antonio Valadares Oliveira, Maria Luiza Doria Almeida, Angela Maria da Silva, Ana Jovina Barreto Bispo*, Gleide Maria Gatto Braganca, Isabela Soares Costa, and Lucas Silva Brito
    Over the last few decades, zinc deficiency has become a nutritional problem present in developed and developing countries. It has encompassed many abnormalities in the metabolism caused by inadequate dietetic ingestion, a decrease in the absorption or an increase in the urine excretion, presence of agents in the diet that compromise its absorption, bowel surgery, malabsorption syndromes, renal diseases, chronic liver diseases, alcohol abuse, total parenteral nutrition without zinc addition and, still, genetic problems. In this case report we present the case of a preschool child hospitalized for investigation and explanation of a dermatologic bullous situation. As comorbidities, malnutrition and chronic diarrhea were also identified. After the introduction of therapeutic zinc, during the period of hospitalization, the patient improved substantially.
    Erica Brenner* and Sabina Mir
    The patient is a 9 month old full term female who initially presented to her pediatrician with failure to thrive.
    Biagio Castaldi*, Loira Leoni and, Ornella Milanesi
    A male newborn with pre-natal diagnosis of complex congenital heart disease (Taussig-Bing heart) was referred to our Institution for surgical treatment. The procedure was complicated by permanent AV block and consequent implantation of epicardial PMK in DDD mode. Despite the absence of any residual stenosis the patient poorly tolerated oral feeding and LV function progressively worsened. The PMK setting was changed to VVI and the optimal heart rate was chosen by using the left ventricular outflow tract velocity time integral. Twelve days after, the echocardiographic evaluation showed a dramatic improvement of LV shape and function. This case has demonstrated that systolic dysfunction in paced ventricles may be due not only to LV dyssynchrony but also to PMK-induced diastolic dysfunction.
    Research Article
    Pournima Navalkele, Kevin Belgrave, Deniz Altinok, Kanta Bhambhani, Jeffrey W. Taub and Zhihong J. Wang*
    Hypoalbuminemia is common in the intensive care setting, and preoperative hypoalbuminemia is reported to be associated with an increased risk of post-operative complications in adult cancer patients. However, studies of hypoalbuminemia in childhood cancers are scarce.
    Objective: We conducted a study to look at the incidence of hypoalbuminemia at diagnosis of neuroblastoma, the most common extra-cranial solid cancer in children.
    Study design: We performed a retrospective chart review of the neuroblastoma cases diagnosed between 2007 and 2013 at our institution.
    Results: Among the 30 cases with serum albumin levels available at diagnosis, the albumin level was <3.5 g/dL in 16 cases (53%), <3 g/dL in 10 cases (33%), and <2 g/dL in 4 cases (13%). While hypoalbuminemia was multifactorial, we believe that protein-losing-enteropathy, likely due to tumor-related enteric lymphatic obstruction and lymphangiectasia, was one of the causes.
    Conclusion: Hypoalbuminemia was a frequent finding in our cohort, and further investigation in a larger study is warranted.
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